Geothermal Energy Development: Problems and Prospects in the Imperial Valley of California

Geothermal Energy Development: Problems and Prospects in the Imperial Valley of California

by Edgar W. Butler, James B. Pick

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982)

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What are the effects on an isolated region when an entirely new and major energy resource is developed to commercial proportions? What happens to the population, the economy, the environment, the community, and societal relations? How does the government frame­ work respond, the family structure adapt, the economy expand, and life styles change under the impact of new forces which hold a prom­ ise of much benefit and a risk of adverse consequences? Imperial County, California, has a population of less than 90,000 people. This population has been exceptionally stable for years, cen­ tered as it is in an agricultural and recreational framework. The county is somewhat cut off from other areas by geographic barriers of moun'" tains and desert, by state and natural boundaries, and is the most remote of all 58 counties of California from the state capitol, Sacra­ mento. In the decade of the 1950s, geographical explorations for oil re­ vealed some anomalous structures underlying the desert and agricul­ tural areas in Imperial County. These, when drilled, seemed to be oil­ less and hot, and so lacked attractiveness to petroleum wildcatters. In the decade of the 1960s, Dr.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468470086
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 03/30/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982
Pages: 382
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1. An Integrated Assessment Model for Public Policy Alternatives, Priorities, and Outcomes in Geothermal Environments.- Transferability of Research Results in Other KGRAs.- Assumptions.- An Orientation to Imperial County.- County Demographic and Employment Features.- The Research Model.- Functions of the Model.- Consolidation.- Systematization.- Identification.- Enhancement.- Mitigation.- Results.- Methodology.- Research Site Selection.- On-Site Research Data Collection.- Measurement of Key Factors.- Data Analytic Techniques.- Research Conclusions, Recommendations: Public Policy Alternatives, Priorities, and Outcomes.- Imperial County Research Prospective.- The Imperial County Plan.- Scope of Planning and of Energy Planning in Imperial County.- Acknowledgment and Comment.- 2. Geothermal Energy in Imperial County, California.- Geothermal Resources.- Definitions.- Underlying Geological Theory of Geothermal Energy.- Types of Geothermal Resources.- Geothermal Exploration and Drilling.- Geothermal Power Plants.- Use of Geothermal Resources.- Geothermal Resources in Imperial County.- Origin of the Geothermal Resource.- Estimation of Geothermal Temperature and Reservoir Capacity.- Geothermal Area Physical Properties.- Effects of Fluid Withdrawal and Reinjection.- Life Expectancy of the Geothermal Resource.- Conclusion.- Acknowledgment.- 3. Population—Economic Data Analyses Relative to Geothermal Fields, Imperial County, California.- Population Analysis of Imperial County.- Migration.- Energy Capacity and Consumption in Imperial County.- Population Composition and Change.- Population Economics.- Housing and Transportation.- Regional Socioeconomic Comparisons.- Migration and Income Characteristics.- Discriminant Analyses of Geothermal Areas.- Applications to Geothermal Energy Development.- Spanish-American Population of Imperial County.- Resident SAs.- Illegal Mexican Aliens.- The MA Population and Geothermal Energy Development.- Acknowledgment.- 4. Regional Employment Implications for Geothermal Energy Development in Imperial County, California.- Regional Regression Analysis for Employment.- Analysis Result.- Implications of Geothermal Development on Regional Employment.- Acknowledgment.- 5. Projected Population, Growth, and Displacement from Geothermal Development.- Farm Labor Force Reduction Based on Land Area Analysis.- Farm Labor Reduction.- Historical Migration and Age Structure.- Population Projections.- Series (I) and (II).- Series (III) and (IV).- Series (V) and (VI).- Results.- Conclusions.- Transferability of Methods and Results.- 6. Public Opinion about Geothermal Development.- Methodology.- Sample Design.- Questionnaire Design and Review.- Mail-Back Procedure.- Response Rates.- Cautions.- Public Opinion about Geothermal Development in Imperial County: 1976.- Understanding of Geothermal Development.- Background Characteristics.- Attitudes.- Adequacy of Information about Geothermal Development.- Background Characteristics.- Attitudes.- Conclusions.- Regulation of Geothermal Development.- Background Characteristics.- Attitudinal Statements.- Foreseeing Problems Arising Out of Geothermal Development.- Background Characteristics.- Attitudes.- Land Ownership and Opinion about Geothermal Development.- Land Ownership.- Landowner’s Opinion.- Rural Land Ownership.- Public Opinion in the Heber Area.- Conclusions and Recommendations.- Recommendations.- Transferability of Research.- Future Research.- Acknowledgment.- 7. Leadership, Community Decisions, and Geothermal Energy Development: Imperial County, California.- The Power Structure in Imperial County.- Methodology.- Influential People and the Power Structure in Imperial Valley.- Summary.- Leadership Opinion and Reaction to Geothermal Development.- A Comparison of Leadership Opinion and Public Opinion of Geothermal Resource Development.- The Efffect of Geothermal Resource Development on the Power Structure in Imperial County.- Conclusions.- Acknowledgment.- 8. Geothermal Development. Update.- Beginnings of Geothermal Impact on County Population and Leadership.- Electrical Use Developments.- East Mesa.- Heat Exchangers.- Pumps.- Cooling System.- Heber.- Brawley.- Salton Sea.- Direct Use Developments.- City of El Centro Community Center.- Holly Sugar.- Valley Nitrogen.- Regulatory Permitting Process in the County.- Limiting Factors on Geothermal Development.- Transmission Lines.- Financing.- Political Factors.- Direct Use Transmission Pipes.- Cooling Water Availability.- Brine Waste Disposal.- Conclusions.- 9. Research Conclusions and Policy Recommendations about Geothermal Development.- Major Research Conclusions.- Environmental Impact.- Population and Economics.- Policy Recommendations of the Population Analysis.- Public Opinion.- Research Conclusions on Public Opinion.- Policy Recommendations from the Public Opinion Survey.- Recommendations.- Assumptions.- Environmental.- Socioeconomic.- Implications of Research Oriented Planning to Imperial County and Other Counties.- Acknowledgment.- Appendix: Public Opinion Questionnaire.- References.- Author Index.

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