This book was inspired by the revolution in geographical information systems during the late 1970s and 1980s which introduced to many the concept of computer-based information systems for spatially referenced data. The map, the aerial photograph and the satellite image were wedded to a database of textual information through the rapidly developing technology of powerful graphics workstations. This brought the skills of the geographer to a wide range of disciplines and specialists. But this book is not about the basic concepts of geographical information systems themselves. It is not about hardware or software per se, nor the integral concepts of geo-referenced data handling built into such systems; these are to be found in a growing number of introductory texts on the subject. Instead the focus of this book is on of geo-information management. the much wider issues While an understanding of the systems, their capabilities and limitations is necessary, of greater importance to the long term application of geographical understanding to problem solving is the wider context of information handling. Spatial data are becoming increasingly important in understanding the issues that confront the world. Chapter 1 is a discussion of the general issues which relate to management and information systems. It concludes with review of spatial decision support systems which are of increasing importance to the GIS community.
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Table of Contents1: Information management.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Spatial data systems.- 1.3 Decision making.- 1.4 Organisations and their objectives.- 1.5 The management of information.- 1.6 Information networks.- 1.7 Information systems.- 1.8 Geo-information systems.- 1.9 Spatial decision support systems.- 2: Data for geo-information systems.- 2.1 Data into information.- 2.2 Describing geographic location.- 2.3 Objects and hierarchies.- 2.4 Maps and cartographic representation.- 2.5 Considerations in using maps.- 2.6 Map-based geo-information systems.- 2.7 Data derived from spatial analysis.- 2.8 Address-based spatial information.- 2.9 Postcodes.- 2.10 Other spatial datasets.- 2.11 Attribute data.- 2.12 Metadata.- 3: Geo-information databases.- 3.1 Choosing the right data structure.- 3.2 Data structures and data models.- 3.3 Spatial data models.- 3.4 Spatial data structures.- 3.5 Problems of three dimensional data.- 3.6 Temporal data model.- 3.7 Database management systems.- 3.8 Physical and logical database design.- 3.9 DBMS structures.- 3.10 Standard query language (SQL).- 3.11 Object-oriented databases.- 4: Integrated approaches to GIS.- 4.1 Benefits of information integration.- 4.2 Integrated data models.- 4.3 Information networks.- 4.4 Integration with existing databases.- 4.5 Open systems environment.- 4.6 Integration frameworks.- 4.7 Corporate solutions.- 4.8 Organisational issues.- 4.9 Implementation strategies.- 4.10 Benefits and costs.- 5: Low cost spatial information systems.- 5.1 Low cost strategies.- 5.2 Development of the microcomputer.- 5.3 Availability of software.- 5.4 Developing technologies.- 5.5 Stand alone solutions.- 5.6 Network solutions.- 5.7 Data availability.- 5.8 Human resourcing issues.- 5.9 Implementation issues.- 5.10 Low cost GIS users.- 6: Copyright and legal issues.- 6.1 Who owns the data?.- 6.2 Law related to information.- 6.3 Access to information.- 6.4 Data ownership and copyright.- 6.5 Added value information.- 6.6 Liability and GIS.- 6.7 Accuracy of information.- 6.8 Inappropriate map usage.- 6.9 Data availability and government policy.- 7: Standards for spatial information.- 7.1 The role of standards.- 7.2 Standards organisations.- 7.3 Data transfer standards.- 7.4 UK National Transfer Format.- 7.5 US Spatial Data Transfer Standard.- 7.6 DIGEST.- 7.7 ASRP Raster Standard.- 7.8 Other standards.- 7.9 Importance of standards.- 8: Analysis functions in GIS.- 8.1 Analysis in GIS.- 8.2 Manipulation versus analysis.- 8.3 Query and manipulation in integrated solutions.- 8.4 Statistical analysis.- 8.5 Modelling of spatial data.- 8.6 Models for managing derived data.- 8.7 Metadatabases and data dictionaries.- 8.8 Developing operating procedures for analytical processes.- 9: Graphical user interfaces.- 9.1 Human-computer interface.- 9.2 User-friendly GIS.- 9.3 Generic interface types.- 9.4 User interfaces for decision support systems.- 9.5 GIS-independent user interfaces.- 9.6 Specific applications of graphical user interfaces.- 9.7 Issues of communication.- 9.8 Help facilities.- 10: Visualisation.- 10.1 Cartographic visualisation.- 10.2 Perception and patterns.- 10.3 Map design issues.- 10.4 Colour and symbolisation.- 10.5 Typology and text placement.- 10.6 Interactive map specifications.- 10.7 Scientific visualisation.- 10.8 Terrain representation.- 10.9 Three dimensional visualisation.- 10.10 Perspective cartography.- 10.11 Visualisaton of temporal information.- 10.12 Virtual reality.- 11: Image-based spatial information systems.- 11.1 Image-based information systems.- 11.2 Vertical aerial photography.- 11.3 Photogrammetric data collection.- 11.4 Recent technical advances.- 11.5 Photo interpretation.- 11.6 Orthophotos.- 11.7 Digital photogrammetry.- 11.8 Seamless aerial photography.- 11.9 Changing role of aerial photography in GIS.- 11.10 Remote sensing.- 11.11 Image analysis.- 11.12 Role of remote sensing.- 11.13 Integrated image-based systems.- 12: Multimedia and hypermaps.- 12.1 The multimedia concept.- 12.2 Multimedia data.- 12.3 Digital video.- 12.4 Sound.- 12.5 Animation.- 12.6 Hypertext concept.- 12.7 Hyperdocuments.- 12.8 Hypertext user interfaces.- 12.9 Hypermaps.- 12.10 Cartographic representation in multimedia.- 12.11 Integrated geo-based multimedia solutions.- Appendix A: Acronyms.- Appendix B: A summary of the main GIS and related software that has been developed for microcomputers.