Introduction to Research Methods in Education

Introduction to Research Methods in Education

Hardcover(Second Edition)

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Overview

Introduction to Research Methods in Education by Keith F Punch, Alis E. Oancea

Based on the popular Introduction to Social Research, this book offers a highly accessible, clear and engaging introduction to research in education, which has been carefully and extensively developed to fully meet the needs of those studying in education and related fields.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781446260739
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publication date: 12/13/2014
Edition description: Second Edition
Pages: 448
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.10(d)

About the Author

Keith F. Punch is a social research expert and was Winthrop Professor in the Graduate School of Education, the University of Western Australia, and is now Professor Emeritus in the University of Western Australia.

Alis is Professor of Philosophy of Education and Research Policy, as well as Director of Research at the University of Oxford, Department of Education. She specialises in philosophy of research, including work on contemporary issues in knowledge management and knowledge exchange, and in research policy and governance, including research evaluation. She also has strong interests in higher education, contemporary challenges for philosophy of education, and science and technology studies.

Table of Contents

Preface xii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Empirical research - data 2

1.2 Quantitative and qualitative data 3

1.3 Relaxing the qualitative-quantitative distinction 4

1.4 Some simplifying devices 5

1.5 Essentials and togic 7

1.6 Science, the social sciences and education research 8

1.7 A model of research 10

1.8 Organization of the book 10

Chapter summary 12

Further reading 12

Exercises and study questions 13

2 Theory and Method in Education Research 14

2.1 Methodological theory 15

2.2 Substantive theory 20

2.3 Description versus explanation 21

2.4 Theory verification-theory generation 23

2.5 Question-method connections 25

2.6 Prespecified versus unfolding: structure in research questions, design and data 28

Chapter summary 33

Further reading 34

Exercises and study questions 34

3 The Context and Ethics of Education Research 36

3.1 The political context 38

3.2 The practitioner researcher 39

3.3 Small-scale empirical studies 42

3.4 Researching your own classroom, school or college 43

3.5 Research with children 46

3.6 Ethical issues 49

Chapter summary 53

Further reading 54

Exercises and study questions 54

4 Research Questions 56

4.1 A hierarchy of concepts 58

4.2 Research areas and topics 59

4.3 General and specific research questions 60

4.4 Data collection questions 62

4.5 Developing research questions 62

4.6 The role of research questions 64

4.7 Hypotheses 65

4.8 A simplified model of research 67

4.9 The role of the literature 69

Chapter summary 70

Further reading 70

Exercises and study questions 71

5 From Research Questions to Data 73

5.1 The empirical criterion 74

5.2 Linking concepts and data75

5.3 Good and bad research questions 76

5.4 Value judgements 77

5.5 Causation 78

5.6 Conceptual frameworks 83

5.7 From research questions to data 85

5.8 Combining quantitative and qualitative data 88

Chapter summary 89

Further reading 90

Exercises and study questions 90

6 Literature Searching and Reviewing 93

6.1 Research literature 95

6.2 Theoretical literature 96

6.3 Purposes of a dissertation literature review 97

6.4 Carrying out a literature review 98

6.5 Being critical 104

6.6 Some common problems 105

6.7 Examples of literature reviews 107

6.8 The research journal literature 108

Chapter summary 109

Further reading 109

Exercises and study questions 110

7 Qualitative Research Design 111

7.1 What is research design? 112

7.2 Diversity in qualitative research 115

7.3 Case studies 118

7.4 Ethnography 124

7.5 Grounded theory 129

7.6 Action research 135

Chapter summary 138

Further reading 139

Exercises and study questions 141

8 Collecting Qualitative Data 143

8.1 The interview 144

8.2 Observation 153

8.3 Participant observation 156

8.4 Documentary data 158

8.5 Data collection procedures 161

8.6 Sampling in qualitative research 162

Chapter summary 165

Further reading 165

Exercises and study questions 167

9 The Analysis of Qualitative Data 169

9.1 Diversity in qualitative analysis 170

9.2 Analytic induction 172

9.3 The Miles and Huberman framework for qualitative data analysis 173

9.4 Abstracting and comparing 180

9.5 Grounded theory analysis 182

9.6 Other approaches in qualitative analysis 190

9.7 Computers in the analysis of qualitative data 202

Chapter summary 204

Further reading 206

Exercises and study questions 208

10 Quantitative Research Design 210

10.1 Research design 211

10.2 Some background 212

10.3 Independent, dependent and control variables 214

10.4 The experiment 215

10.5 Quasi-experimental and non-experimental design 219

10.6 Relationships between variables: the correlational survey 222

10.7 Relationships between variables: causation and accounting for variance 224

10.8 Multiple linear regression (MLR) as a general design strategy 226

10.9 Controlling variables 228

Chapter summary 230

Further reading 230

Exercises and study questions 231

11 Collecting Quantitative Data 233

11.1 Types of variables 234

11.2 The process of measurement 236

11.3 Latent traits 239

11.4 Measuring techniques 240

11.5 Steps in constructing a measuring instrument 241

11.6 To construct an instrument or to use an existing instrument? 242

11.7 Locating existing measuring instruments 243

11.8 Reliability and validity 244

11.9 Developing a survey questionnaire 248

11.10 Collecting the data: administering the measuring instrument 249

11.11 Sampling 250

11.12 Secondary analysis 252

Chapter summary 253

Further reading 254

Exercises and study questions 256

12 The Analysis of Quantitative Data 259

12.1 Summarizing quantitative data 261

12.2 Relationships between variables: cross-tabulations and contingency tables 263

12.3 Comparisons between groups: the analysis of variance 265

12.4 Relationships between variables: correlation and regression 270

12.5 The analysis of survey data 276

12.6 Data reduction: factor analysis 277

12.7 Statistical inference 280

12.8 Computer software for the analysis of quantitative data 282

Chapter summary 282

Further reading 283

Exercises and study questions 284

13 Mixed Methods Research 287

13.1 History of mixed methods 289

13.2 Rationale for mixed methods 290

13.3 Basic characteristics of the two approaches: variables and cases 292

13.4 Mixed methods designs 295

Chapter summary 301

Further reading 301

Exercises and study questions 302

14 Evaluation 304

14.1 General evaluative criteria 305

14.2 Programme evaluation 317

Chapter summary 321

Further reading 322

Exercises and study questions 322

15 Research Writing 324

15.1 Background 325

15.2 Research documents 328

15.3 Writing to report versus writing to learn: writing as analysis 340

15.4 Writing choices 341

Chapter summary 342

Further reading 343

Exercises and study questions 344

Appendix 1 Drawing and Verifying Conclusions in Qualitative Analysis 346

Appendix 2 Computer Software in Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis 349

Glossary 356

References 361

Index 375

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