Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461268130
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 10/03/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999
Pages: 319
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1. Determination of Total Lipid, Lipid Classes, and Fatty Acids in Aquatic Samples.- 1.1. Introduction.- 1.2. Results and Discussion.- 1.2.1. Sampling and Storage.- 1.2.2. Lipid Extraction.- 1.2.3. Determination of Total Lipid.- 1.2.4. Determination of Lipid Classes.- 1.2.5. Determination of Fatty Acids and Carbon Number Profiles.- 1.3. Conclusion.- References.- 2. Fatty Acids as Trophic and Chemical Markers in Freshwater Ecosystems.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Nomenclature.- 2.3. Characteristics of Fatty Acid Markers for Trophic Studies.- 2.4. Primary Sources and Trophic Transfer of Fatty Acids.- 2.4.1. Fatty Acid Composition of Algae and Cyanobacteria.- 2.4.2. Fatty Acids as Trophic Markers of Algae and Cyanobacteria.- 2.4.3. Fatty Acid Composition of Bacteria.- 2.4.4. Fatty Acids as Trophic Markers of Bacteria.- 2.4.5. Fatty Acid Markers from Allochthonous Sources.- 2.4.6. Fatty Acids as Trophic Markers in Vertebrates.- 2.5. Research Needs.- 2.6. Conclusions.- References.- 3. Irradiance and Lipid Production in Natural Algal Populations.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Metabolism and Reallocation.- 3.2.1. Lipids in Relation to Other Macromolecular Classes.- 3.2.2. Diel Versus Light-Phase Allocation and Synthesis.- 3.2.3. Budgets for Overnight Activity.- 3.2.4. Reallocation Among Lipid Classes.- 3.3. Irradiance and Lipid Synthesis.- 3.3.1. Photosynthetic Parameters.- 3.3.2. Light Saturation Parameter, Ik.- 3.3.3. Production Efficiency Parameter, ?.- 3.3.4. Areal Lipid Production.- 3.3.5. Implications of the Irradiance Response.- 3.4. Conclusions.- 3.5. Research Directions.- References.- 4. Lipids in Freshwater Zooplankton: Selected Ecological and Physiological Aspects.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Usefulness of Areal Energy Reserve Estimates.- 4.3. Time Course of Lipid Deposition/Loss.- 4.4. Lipids as Indices of Stress.- 4.4.1. Ratio of Storage to Membrane Lipids.- 4.4.2. Maternal Lipid Investment.- 4.4.3. Visible Lipid Energy Stores.- 4.4.4. Fatty Acid Composition and Abundance.- 4.5. Ultraviolet Radiation and Zooplankton Lipids.- 4.6. Research Needs and Suggested Future Directions.- 4.6.1. Geographical Disparities.- 4.6.2. Physicochemical Disparities.- 4.6.3. Essential Fatty Acids.- 4.6.4. Effects of Temperature Changes.- 4.6.5. Diapause.- 4.6.6. Lipids as Allelopathic Compounds and Chemical Feeding Deterrents.- 4.7. Conclusions.- References.- 5. Lipid Dietary Dependencies in Zooplankton.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Methods.- 5.2.1. Microparticle Preparation.- 5.2.2. Dietary Supplement Experiments.- 5.2.3. Characterization of the Natural Algal Diet.- 5.2.4. Algal Counting and Autoradiography.- 5.3. Results.- 5.3.1. Supplement Experiments with Natural Populations.- 5.3.2. Lake Waynewood Experiment: October 1989.- Algal Diet.- Response byDaphnia.- 5.4. Discussion.- References.- 6. Seasonal Dynamics of Lipids in Freshwater Benthic Invertebrates.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Results and Discussion.- 6.2.1. Slope and Profundal Zones.- Crustacea: Amphipoda.- Mysidacea.- 6.2.2. Shelf and Nearshore Zones.- Crustacea: Amphipoda.- Annelida: Oligochaeta.- Insecta.- Mollusca: Bivalvia.- 6.3. Research Needs.- 6.4. Conclusions.- References.- 7. Ecological Role of Lipids in the Health and Success of Fish Populations.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. Results and Discussion.- 7.2.1. Overwinter Starvation and Survival.- 7.2.2. Energy Allocation Strategies.- 7.2.3. Reproductive Development and Early Life History.- 7.2.4. Lipids and Environmental Stress.- Contaminant Effects.- Thermal Effects.- Other Stressors.- References.- 8. Lipids and Essential Fatty Acids in Aquatic Food Webs: What Can Freshwater Ecologists Learn from Mariculture?.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. Results and Discussion.- 8.2.1. Some Important Lipids and Fatty Acids.- Essential Fatty Acids.- Lipid Classes.- 8.2.2. Methodological Considerations.- 8.2.3. Physiological Requirements of Marine Animals.- General Evaluation of EFA Requirements.- Anabolic Processes and Growth.- Membrane Transport and Metabolism.- Regulation of Metabolism.- General Considerations and Concluding Remarks.- 8.2.4. Methods for Evaluation of EFA Requirements.- 8.2.5. Symptoms of EFA Deficiency.- 8.2.6. Fatty Acid Transport and Metabolism in Food Webs.- Algae.- Lipids of Algae.- Essential Fatty Acids of Algae.- Conclusion.- Zooplankton.- Lipid Content and Lipid Composition.- Fatty Acids of TAG-Zooplankton.- Fish.- Lipid.- Fatty Acid Composition.- General Conclusions.- 8.2.7. Relevance of Mariculture Research.- 8.2.8. Evaluation of Ecological Effects of Essential Fatty Acids.- 8.3. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 9. Influence of Lipids on the Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer of Organic Contaminants in Aquatic Organisms.- 9.1. Introduction.- 9.1.1. Sources of Contaminant Gain and Loss in Aquatic Systems.- 9.1.2. Organism Adiposity and Internal Distribution of Contaminants.- 9.1.3. Nonlipid Factors Affecting Internal Distributions.- 9.2. Prediction of Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation.- 9.2.1. Bioconcentration.- 9.2.2. Bioaccumulation.- 9.3. Factors Affecting Prediction.- 9.3.1. Methods for Measuring Lipid Content.- 9.3.2. Lipid Composition and Bioaccumulation.- 9.4. Mimicking Bioconcentration with Semipermeable Membrane Devices.- 9.5. Toxicity and the Role of Lipid.- 9.5.1. Release of Sequestered Contaminant During Metabolism.- 9.5.2. Lipids and Membrane Narcosis.- 9.5.3. Effect of Toxins on Lipid Metabolism and Function.- 9.6. Relevance of Food Chain Transfer to Bioaccumulation.- 9.6.1. Relevance of Trophic Transfer to Bioaccumulation...- 9.6.2. Role of Lipids in Food Chain Accumulation.- Fugacity Model.- Mechanism for Trophic Transfer.- 9.6.3. Factors Affecting Trophic Transfer.- Assimilation Efficiency.- Miscellaneous Factors Affecting Assimilation.- 9.7. Biomagnification and Organism Lipids.- 9.7.1. Is Biomagnification Real?.- 9.7.2. A Lipid-Based Model for Biomagnification.- 9.7.3. Current Issues in Biomagnification and Relationship to Lipids.- 9.8. Lipids and Transgenerational Transfer of Contaminants.- 9.9. Conclusions.- References.- 10. Lipids in Water-Surface Microlayers and Foams.- 10.1. Introduction.- 10.2. Basic Physicochemistry of Surface Microlayers.- 10.3. Basic Structure of Foams.- 10.4. Sampling Techniques.- 10.5. Physicochemical Processes at the Surface Microlayers.- 10.6. Lipids in the Water-Surface Microlayers and Foams.- 10.6.1. Total Lipids and Major Lipid Classes.- 10.6.2. Fatty Acids.- 10.7. Research Needs.- 10.8. Final Remarks.- References.- 11. Comparison of Lipids in Marine and Freshwater Organisms.- 11.1. Introduction.- 11.2. Discussion.- 11.2.1. Lipid Classes.- 11.2.2. Sterols and Cholesterol.- 11.2.3. Wax Esters and Triacylglycerols.- 11.2.4. Fatty Acids.- 11.2.5. Furan and Some Other Unusual Fatty Acids.- 11.2.6. Ether Lipids.- 11.2.7. Prostanoids.- 11.3. Conclusions.- References.

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