Now fully revised and updated—the classic book oneffective R&D management
"This thoughtful and detailed work outlines what is required inorder to achieve the desired end results in a networked world whereteamwork and collaboration are increasingly important to globallydispersed workforces."—John Chambers, Chairman and CEO, Cisco
Praise for the Second Edition
"This is a superbly written book and could make an excellentreference and text for related university courses."—E. Lile Murphree, Jr., PhD, former Chairman,Department of Engineering Management, The George WashingtonUniversity
"Provides a superb exposition of the role that social andpsychological phenomena play in today's organizations."—Fred E. Fiedler, Professor of Psychology Emeritus,University of Washington, Seattle
As the economy shifts from producing goods to producinginformation, the role of researchers in shaping the future hasbecome immense. By taking advantage of modern technology, thehighly trained and predominantly autonomous researchers from aroundthe globe collect and share information better than ever—yet,there is still a lack of an effective centralized structure for anR&D organization manager to integrate the efforts from manydisparate individuals into a unified plan.
Managing Research, Development, and Innovation, ThirdEdition covers the management skills and leadership theoriesessential to generating products and excelling in today's globaleconomy. Topics of interest include how to design jobs, organizehierarchies, resolve conflicts, motivate employees, and create aninnovative work environment. Discover how superior managementskills can increase funding, generate profit, and improve theeffectiveness of technologically based organizations. This newrevised edition:
- Covers all aspects of the research and developmentprocess—with focus on the human management function
- Includes two new chapters covering the innovation processcritical to research and development of new products andservices
- Outlines the challenging issues related to diversity in scienceand technology organizations and provides insights as to howdiversity can be used to enhance creativity
Managing Research, Development, and Innovation, ThirdEdition is the most complete, insightful book of its kind.Useful for professionals and graduate students alike, the textdemonstrates in clear, straightforward prose how good managementskills will shape the future.
About the Author
RAVI K. JAIN, PhD, PE, is Dean of the School of Engineeringand Computer Science at the University of the Pacific in Stockton,California. He has been a Littauer Fellow at Harvard University anda Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge University. He haspublished fourteen books, over 150 scholarly papers and technicalreports, and has received national recognition for his teaching andscholarly activities.
HARRY C. TRIANDIS is Professor Emeritus of Psychology atthe University of Illinois. He is the author of eight books,including Culture and Social Behavior, Individualism andCollectivism, and Fooling Ourselves: Self-Deception inPolitics, Religion, and Terrorism.
CYNTHIA W. WEICK is Professor of Management in theEberhardt School of Business and the School of Engineering andComputer Science at University of the Pacific. Weick was named theNeven C. Hulsey Chair of Business Excellence in 2006, and in 2005,she earned Pacific's Distinguished Faculty Award, which is theUniversity's highest faculty honor.
Table of Contents
1 R&D Organizations and Research Categories.
1.1 How Information can be Used.
1.2 A Perspective on R&D Management.
1.3 What Is Research and Development?
1.4 Research Categories.
1.5 What to Research.
1.6 Emphasis on Basic Versus Applied Research.
1.7 What is Unique About Managing R&D Organizations?
1.9 Questions for Class Discussion.
2 Elements Needed for an R&D Organization.
2.5 Defects in Human Information Processing.
2.6 Fads in Science.
2.7 Communication Networks.
2.8 The Innovation Process.
2.10 A Culture for R&D Organizations.
2.11 Not-Invented-Here Syndrome.
2.12 Fit of Person and Job.
2.13 Creative Tensions: Managing Antithesis and Ambiguity.
2.14 Develop a Climate of Participation.
2.16 Questions for Class Discussion.
3 Creating a Productive and Effective R&DOrganization.
3.1 Organization Effectiveness.
3.2 Who are the Inventors and Innovators?
3.3 Odd Characteristics of Inventors and Innovators.
3.4 Researcher's Relationship with Management and Peers.
3.5 Formation of Teams.
3.6 Generating New Ideas.
3.7 Emphases on Aspects of Organizational Culture.
3.8 Ethos of A Scientific Community.
3.10 Questions for Class Discussion.
4 Job Design and Organizational Effectiveness.
4.1 Job Attributes.
4.2 Physical Location and Communication.
4.3 Career Paths.
4.4 Dual and Triple Hierarchies.
4.5 Centralization and Decentralization.
4.6 Keeping the Researcher at the Innovation Stage.
4.7 Job Design and Conflict.
4.9 Questions for Class Discussion..
5 Influencing People.
5.1 Attitude, Altitude Change.
5.2 Findings from Attitude Research.
5.3 Behavioral Science Division Case.
5.4 Case Analysis.
5.5 Communication Alternatives and Outcomes.
5.7 Questions for Class Discussion.
6 Motivation in R&D Organizations.
6.1 A Model of Human Behavior.
6.2 Changing the Reward System to Support Technical Careers.
6.3 Structuring the Organization for Optimal Communication.
6.4 Rewards and Motivation.
6.5 Reward System Discussion.
6.6 Sense of Control and Community.
6.7 A Federal R&D Laboratory Case.
6.9 Questions for Class Discussion.
7 Dealing with Diversity in R&D Organizations.
7.1 Assimilation and Multiculturalism.
7.2 Understanding Culture.
7.3 Cultural Differences.
7.4 What Happens When People from Different Cultures WorkTogether?
7.5 Cultural Distance.
7.6 Cultural Intelligence and Related Concepts.
7.7 A Model for Diversity in Groups.
7.8 The Status of Minorities in Work Groups.
7.9 Dealing with People from Different Disciplines,Organizational Levels, and Functions.
7.10 Intercultural Training.
7.12 Questions for a Class Discussion.
8 Leadership in R&D Organizations.
8.1 Identifying Your Leadership Style.
8.2 Theories of Leadership and Leadership Styles.
8.3 Leadership in R&D Organizations.
8.4 R&D Leadership: A Process of Mutual Influence.
8.5 A Leadership-Style Case.
8.6 Leadership in a Creative Research Environment.
8.8 Questions for Class Discussion.
9 Managing Conflict in R&D Organizations.
9.1 Conflict Within Individuals.
9.2 Conflict Between Individuals.
9.3 Conflict Between Groups.
9.4 Intercultural Conflict.
9.5 Personal Styles of Conflict Resolution.
9.6 Unique Issues of Conflict in R&D Organizations.
9.9 Questions for Class Discussion.
10 Performance Appraisal-Employee Contribution-In R&DOrganizations.
10.1 Some Negative Connotations of Performance Appraisal.
10.2 Difficulties with Employee Appraisal.
10.3 Performance Appraisal and the Management System.
10.4 Performance Appraisal and Organizational Stages.
10.5 Performance Appraisal and Organization Productivity.
10.6 Goals of Engineers Versus Scientists.
10.7 Performance Appraisal and Monetary Rewards.
10.8 Performance Appraisal in Practice.
10.9 A University Department Case.
10.10 Implementation Strategy with Emphasis on EmployeeContribution.
10.12 Questions for Class Discussion.
10.13 Appendix: Argonne National Laboratory Performance ReviewInformation.
11 Technology Transfer.
11.1 Technology Transfer Hypotheses.
11.2 Stages of Technology Transfer.
11.3 Approaches and Factors Affecting Technology Transfer.
11.4 Role of the User.
11.5 Characteristics of Innovation and its Diffusion.
11.6 Role of People.
11.7 Boundary Spanning.
11.8 Organizational Issues in Technology Transfer.
11.9 The Agricultural Extension Model.
11.10 NASA Technology Transfer Programs.
11.11 IBM Technology Transfer Cases.
11.12 Technology Transfer Strategy.
11.14 Questions for Class Discussion.
12 Models for Implementing Incremental and RadicalInnovation.
12.1 Defining Innovation.
12.2 Strategic Choices in Technological Innovation.
12.3 Making Technological Innovation Operational.
12.4 The Market, Marketers and Market Research in TechnologicalInnovation.
12.5 Leading Innovative Organizations.
12.7 Questions for Class Discussion.
13 Organizational Change in R&D Settings.
13.1 Why Organizational Change?
13.2 Steps in Organizational Change.
13.3 Problems and Action Steps.
13.4 Individual Change.
13.5 Group Change: Team Building.
13.6 Organizational Change.
13.7 Evaluating Organizational Change.
13.8 Case Study in Organizational Change.
13.10 Questions for Class Discussion.
14 Managing the Network of Technological Innovation.
14.1 Overall Trends Within and Between Sectors.
14.2 Trends in Research, Development And Innovation in theCommercial Realm.
14.3 Trends in Research, Development and Innovation in theFederal Government.
14.4 Trends in Research, Development and Innovation inUniversities.
14.5 Open Innovation, Regional Economic Development, and theGlobal Innovation Network.
14.7 Questions for Class Discussion.
15 University and Basic Research.
15.1 Basis for University Research Activities.
15.2 Federal Support of University Research: An Entitlement or aMeans to Achieve National Goals?
15.3 Basic Research-Who Needs It?
15.4 University-Industry Linkage.
15.5 Rethinking Investment in Basic Research.
15.6 Summary and Concluding Comments.
15.7 Questions for Class Discussion.
16 R&D Organizations and Strategy.
16.1 What is Strategy?
16.2 Strategy Levels and Perspectives.
16.3 Strategy Formulation and Implementation.
16.4 Strategy Evaluation.
16.5 Strategy and Innovation.
16.6 Technology and Strategy.
16.7 Applying a Strategy Process.
16.9 Questions for Class Discussion.
17 Research, Development, and Science Policy.
17.1 Relationships Between Science and Technology.
17.2 Technical Innovation and Economic Development.
17.3 Analysis of Investment in Basic Research.
17.4 R&D Expenditure.
17.5 R&D Productivity.
17.6 Global Perspectives on Innovation.
17.7 R&D Expenditure and Science Policy.
17.9 Questions for Class Discussion.