This book contains most of the contributions presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nanowires, held at La Cristalera Residence Hall, Miraflores, Spain, from 23 through September 27, 1996. The workshop was co-directed by P. A. Serena and U. Landman. More than forty scientists from ten countries of Europe, the United States, and Japan attended this meeting and contributed with brilliant talks and stimulating discusions about their recent works. A total of thirty-three oral communications were given, covering the main part of topics related with the subject of the workshop. On one hand, a set of talks presented the theoretical basis of the conductance mechanisms in low dimensional systems, elaborated caIculations on the electronic structure and mechanical behavior of metallic nanowires, the role of defects and geometry in conductance, etc. On the other hand, from the experimental perspective, the contributions included the deeply study of the conductance quantization phenomenom, the analysis of conductance histograms, the study of the origin of the residual resistance, the presentation of different techniques of fabrication and manipulation of nanowires, the study of forces appearing in nanowires and their relation with the electronic conduction, etc. The motivation of the present workshop was to gather together scientists with differents ideas on these topics, to exchange points of view, establish the future lines in their research, and devise the role of nanowires in the future incoming nanoscale technologies. We hope that most of these points were successfully achieved.
Table of ContentsPreface. Introduction: Conductance is Transmission; R. Landauer. Theory: Theory of Quantum Transport in Nanowires; H. Fukuyama, et al. Two Topics Related to the Conduction Properties of Atomic Wires; N.D. Lang. Quantum Transport in Nanowires: Shape Effects, Magnetoconductance and Thermopower; E.N. Bogachek, et al. Quantum Transmission Channels in Perturbed 3D Nanowires; M. Brandbyge, K.W. Jacobsen. Calculation of the Phonon-Free Resistances of Three-Dimensional Disordered Quantum Wires; T.N. Todorov. Conductance and Mechanical Properties of Atom-Scale Metallic Contacts; J.A. Torres, et al. Nanowires: Formation Mechanisms, Size Evolution, Mechanical Reversibility, Conductance and Fluctuations; U. Landman, et al. Electronic and Doping Properties at BxCyNz Nanotubes; A. Rubio. Using Non-Equilibrium Acoustic Phonos to Probe Quantum Wires; M.P. Blencowe. Pumping of Energy into a Ballistic Quantum Ring - An Exactly Solvable Model; L.Y. Gorelik, et al. Experiments: Conductance Quantization: Metallic Nanowires: Conductance Stantistics, Stability, IV Curves, and Magnetism; J.L. Costa-Krämer et al. Metallic Nanowires: Formation and Quantized Conductance; L. Olesen, et al. Electrical Conductance and Atomic Ordering in Metallic Nanowires; A.M. Baró. Stability and Reversibility of Conductance Steps in Metallic Nanowires under Ordinary Ambience; B.E. Salisbury, R.L. Whetten. Fractionally Quantized Conductances in Ballistic Metal Nanowires and Carbon Nanotube Networks; W.A. De Heer, D. Ugarte. Conductance Quantization in Gold Nanowires at Low Temperature; H. Olin, et al. Quantized Conductance in Bismuth Nanowires at 4K; N. García, et al. ConductanceQuantization in Metals: Some Unsolved Problems; J.M. van Ruitenbeek, et al. Conductance Quantization in Fully Integrated Break Junctions at Room Temperature; C. Zhou, et al. Experiments: Nanomechanics: Mechanics on the Nanometer Scale: How is it Different from the Macrosopic Scale? U. Dürig. Mechanical Properties of Metallic Nanocontacts; G. Rubio, et al. Experiments: Other Topics: Visualizatioon of Nanocontacts Formed between macroscopic Metallic Wires Leading to Nanowires Formation; A. Correia, et al. Light Emission from Breaking Nanocontacts: Are there Hot Electrons and Cold Atoms? A. Gil, et al. Atom Wires Formed on Si Surfaces; T. Hashizume, et al. Measuring the Electrical Resistance of Molecular Wires Using Cluster-Based Nanostructures; S. Hong, et al. Quantum Vortices in Periodic and Non-Periodic One-Dimensional Lattics; A. van Oudenaarden, J.E. Mooij. Paramagnetic Currents in Mesoscopic NS Structures; A.C. Mota, et al. Technological Applications: The Effect of Nanowire Limitations on Massively Parallel Computer Architectures; C.D. Tomlinson, et al. Author Index. Subject Index.