On the understanding that few people ever read the preface to any book and also on the understanding that even those few people who do read the preface realize that virtually nothing of any substance is ever said, I shall write at such length as will be proportional to my expected readership. The meetings of the International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue provide a forum for discussion amongst scientists who, although being from very diverse and specialized backgrounds, have tissue oxygenation as a unifying theme of interest. The wide variety of research material presented in this volume and the multiplicity of the experimental techniques described, should serve as an adequate gauge to the range of expertise and knowledge of the society's members. Such diversity should also stress the importance of the need for multidisciplinary approaches to complex biological problems. In attempting a fundamental characterization of a biological process such as tissue oxygenation, the application of very many separate research skills are necessary, such as mathematics, engi neering, biophysics, biochemistry, physiology, histology and clini cal medicine. The success of the ISOTT has - and we hope - will con tinue to be causing a combination of individuals to direct their specialized knowledge to the many facets of a single proces- tissue oxygenation.
Table of ContentsMain Lectures.- Facilitated Diffusion of Oxygen: Possible Significance in Blood and Muscle.- Muscle O2 Gradients from Hemoglobin to Cytochrome: New Concepts, New Complexities.- Metabolic Rate and Microcirculation.- Tissue O2 Supply Under Normal and Pathological Conditions.- Relationship between Steady Redox State and Brain Activation-Induced NAD/NADH Redox Responses.- Physiology of Oxygen Transport to Tissue Theoretical Aspects.- Mathematical Analysis of Transport and Consumption of Molecules in Heterogeneous Brain Tissue (Methodology).- Coupled Transport of O2 and CO2 within the Upper Skin Simulated by the Capillary Loop Model.- Facilitated Diffusion and Electrical Potentials in Protein Solutions with Ionic Species.- Diffusional Coupling in a Hemoglobin-Free Perfused Capillary-Tissue Structure.- Blood and Oxygen Transport.- On the Seemingly Diminished CO2-Bohr Effect in Hypoxic Chemodenervated Rabbits..- Oxygen Uptake into the Sheared Flowing Blood: Effects of Red Cell Membranes and Haematocrit.- Diabetic Oxygen-Hemoglobin Equilibrium Curves Evaluated by Nonlinear Regression of the Hill Equation.- Improved O2 Transfer to Tissues during Deep Hypoxia in Rats with a Left-Shifted Blood O2 Dissociation Curve.- Brain.- Changes in Cerebral Oxygen Tension and Red Cell Content on Sensory Stimulation.- Relations between Po2 and Neuronal Activity in Hippocampal Slices.- Response of Gerbil Cerebral Unit Activity to Slowly Declining Tissue Po2.- Properties of the Spontaneous Fluctuations in Cortical Oxygen Pressure.- Intraoperative Monitoring of Cortical Surface Oxygen in Sub-arachnoid Haemorrhage.- Focal Epicerebral Ischemia: Post-Ischemic Tissue Oxygenation with and without Recirculation.- The Effect of Glucose on the Oxygen Supply of the Blood-Free Perfused Guinea Pig Brain as Measured by Reflection Spectra and Po2 Histograms.- Oxygen Supply to the Brain Cortex in SHR and Normotensive rats.- Local Cytochrome Oxidase Activity in the Cerebral Cortex of the Rat, Histochemically Detected with the DAB-Method; A Micro-Densitometric and Electron Microscope Study..- Relationship between Microflow, Local Tissue Po2 and Extracellular Activities of Potassium and Hydrogen Ions in the Cat Brain during Intraarterial Infusion of Ammonium Acetate.- Regulation of Microflow in the Cat Brain During Insulin Induced Hypoglycemia.- Glycolysis and Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism.- Contribution of Adenosine to the Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow: The Role of Calcium Ions in the Adenosine-Induced Cerebrocortical Vasodilatation.- Effect of DMSO and Barbiturates on Brain Oxygen Distribution.- Heart.- Local Oxygen Supply and Regional Wall Motion of the Dog’s heart during Critical Stenosis of the LAD.- Intramyocardial Oxygen Pressure and Coronary Blood Flow during Experimental Coronary Stenosis.- Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation: Tissue Oxygen Sensor for Regulation of Coronary Flow.- Respiratory Chain O2 Requirements and the Metabolic Answer to Diffuse Ischemia of Mechanically Overloaded Left Ventricular Myocardium.- Distribution of Myocardial Glucose Consumption under Normal Conditions and during Isoprenaline and Dobutamine Infusion.- Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to Carotid Clamping in Anemic Dogs.- Functional Alteration of Membrane Integrity during Global Ischemia in Perfused Working Rabbit Hearts.- Effects of Propranolol and Epinephrine on Capillary Plasma Filling and Minimal Intercapillary Distances in the Rat Heart.- A Comparison of the Methods for Assessment of Myocardial Capillarity.- Oxygen Radicals.- Deleterious Effects of Oxygen Radicals on Reoxygenated Myocardial Cells.- Spontaneous Lipid Peroxidation in Rabbit Spermatozoa: A useful Model for the Reaction of O2 Metabolites with Single Cells.- Muscle.- A Comparison of Po2 Histograms from Rabbit Hind-Limb Muscles Obtained by Simultaneous Measurements with Hypodermic Needle Electrodes and with Surface Electrodes.- Diffusion-Perfusion Relationships in Skeletal Muscle: Models and Experimental Evidence from Inert Gas Washout.- Oxygen Supply of Skeletal Muscle in Experimental Endotoxic Shock.- Microcirculation and Po2 in Skeletal Muscle during Respiratory Hypoxia and Stimulation.- Heterogeneity of Capillary Blood Flow in Skeletal Muscle: Evidence from Local 133Xe Clearance and Microsphere Trapping.- Biochemical and 31P-NMR Studies of the Energy Metabolism in Relation to Oxygen Supply in Rat Skeletal Muscle during Exercise.- Dependence of O2 Uptake on Tissue Po2: Experiments in Intact Excised Rat Skeletal Muscle.- Metabolic Adaptation in Response to Intermittent Hypoxia in Rat Skeletal Muscle.- Local Regulation of Blood Flow.- Abdominal Organs.- Flow Dependence and Independence of Oxygen Consumption within the Intestinal Vasculature.- Effect of Somatostatin on Intestinal Microcirculation and Metabolism.- Po2 and pH Measurements within the Rabbit Oviduct Following Tubal Microsurgery: Reanastomosis of Previously Dissected Tubes.- Studies of Hemorrhagic and Traumatic Shock Influence on Liver Oxygen Tension: Effects of a Single Large Dose of Dexamethasone.- Correlation between the Redox State of NAD(P)H and Total Flow in the Perfused Rat Liver.- Studies on the Ability of Kidney Cells to Recover after Periods of Anoxia.- Erythropoietin and Intrarenal Oxygenation in Hypercapnic versus Normocapnic Hypoxemia.- Tumor.- Effectiveness of Respiratory Hyperoxia, of Normobaric and of Hyperbaric Oxygen Atmospheres in Improving Tumor Oxygenation.- Impact of Various Thermal Doses on the Oxygenation and Blood Flow in Malignant Tumors upon Localized Hyperthermia.- Other Organs.- Measurement of Local Po2 and Intracapillary Hemoglobin Oxygenation in Lung Tissue of Rabbits.- Cessation of Capillary Blood Flow Induced by Localized Application of Carbon Dioxide.- Hypoxic Reduction in Blood Flow Velocity in Pulmonary Arterioles and Capillaries.- Retinal Oxygen Tension in Diabetic Dogs Following Insulin Infusion.- A Mechanism for Oxygen Damage to the Immature Retinal Vasculature.- Reactions of Carotid Baroreceptors to Anoxia and Ischaemia.- O2 Chemoreceptors.- O2 Chemoreception of the Cat Carotid Body InVitro.- Local Variations of Oxygen Consumption within Multicellular Spheroids Calculated from Measured Po2 Profiles.- Microcirculation.- The Fine Adjustment of Capillary Blood Flow through Excitation of the Capillary Wall.- Intermediate Size Filaments and Microfilaments in Frog Mesenteric Capillaries.- Effect of Adrenaline on Capillary Diameter in the Frog Mesentery.- Rhythmicity and Tension Development of Spontaneous Contracting Capillaries in the Mesentery of Frogs.- Practical Aspects.- Transcutaneous Po2 during Exercise.- Quantification of the Utilization of Reserve Oxygen Transport Capacity: Initial Studies in Critically Ill Patients.- On a Generalized Bioenergetic Control Mechanism of Microcirculation with Different Effects in the Lung and the Other Parts of the Body.- Oxygen Profiles and Structure of Pénicillium Chrysogenum Pellets.- Instrumentation and Methods.- Some Aspects of Signal Analysis Applied to Intracapillary Hemoglobin Spectra.- Correlation between Tissue Po2 and Intracapillary Hb Spectra.- Evaluation of Reflection Spectra of the Isolated Heart by Multicomponent Spectra Analysis in Comparison to Other Evaluation Methods.- Quantitative Analysis of Reflection Spectra of the Surface of the Guinea Pig Brain.- Assessment of Brain Oxygenation: A Comparison between an Oxygen Electrode and Near-Infrared Spectrophotometry.- Cryogenic Microspectrophotometry.- A Measuring Device to Determine a Universal Parameter for the Flow Characteristics of Blood: Measurement of the Yield Shear Stress in a Branched Capillary.- Television Fluorescein-Angiography of the Retina with On-Line Measurement of the Dilution Curves.- Micro, Surface, and Needle Oxygen Electrodes: Comparison of Physiological Relevance and Clinical Acceptance.- An Improved Polarographic Multiwire Surface Po2 Electrode, Particularly for Measurement of High Po2 Values.- Steady State Condition What Does it Mean during Investigation of Oxygen Supply?.- Evidence for Boundary Layer Effects Influencing the Sensitivity of Microencapsulated O2 Fluorescence Indicator Molecules.- A Correction Method for Ionic Strength-Independent Fluorescence Photometric pH Measurement.- Influence of Enzyme Concentration and Thickness of the Enzyme Layer on the Calibration Curve of the Continuously Measuring Glucose Optode.- Participants.- Contributors.