Sea of Glory: America's Voyage of Discovery, The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842

Sea of Glory: America's Voyage of Discovery, The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842

by Nathaniel Philbrick

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780142004838
Publisher: Penguin Publishing Group
Publication date: 10/26/2004
Edition description: Reprint
Pages: 480
Sales rank: 178,680
Product dimensions: 5.31(w) x 7.99(h) x 1.03(d)
Age Range: 18 - 17 Years

About the Author

Nathaniel Philbrick is the author of In the Heart of the Sea, winner of the National Book Award; Mayflower, finalist for the Pulitzer Prize; Bunker Hill, winner of the New England Book Award; Sea of Glory; The Last Stand; Why Read Moby Dick?; and Away Off Shore. He lives in Nantucket. His latest book is Valiant Ambition: George Washington, Benedict Arnold, and the Fate of the American Revolution.

Hometown:

Nantucket, Massachusetts

Date of Birth:

June 11, 1956

Place of Birth:

Boston, Massachusetts

Education:

B.A., Brown University, 1978; M.A., Duke University

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE
The odds had been against him from the start. When his squadron of six sailing vessels set out from the Norfolk Navy Yard in 1838, most of the world’s oceans had already been thoroughly explored. That had not prevented the United States from sending him on a bold, some said foolhardy mission: to scour the Southern Hemisphere of the earth for new lands.

Miraculously, he had made discoveries that would redraw the map of the world. He and his officers had surveyed dozens of uncharted Pacific islands. They had completed America’s first survey of what would one day become the states of Oregon and Washington. His team of scientists had brought back forty tons of specimens and artifacts, including two thousand never-before-identified species. Most impressive of all, he had established the existence of a new continent. Battling icebergs and gale-force winds in his fragile wooden ships, he had charted a 1,500-mile section of Antarctic coast that still bears his name: Wilkes Land.

But on that September day in 1842, just a few months after his return to the United States, Lieutenant Charles Wilkes was anything but a hero. Instead of being honored with speeches and parades, he had been put on trial in the crowded cabin of the USS North Carolina anchored in New York Harbor. Beside him sat his attorney; across from them were the judges—thirteen naval officers who were about to decide whether he was guilty of illegally whipping his men, massacring the inhabitants of a tiny Fijian island, lying about the discovery of Antarctica, and other outrages. Sitting in the gallery were many of his own officers. They whispered among themselves and smiled, confident that their hated commander would soon get his due.

He was a slight man with brown hair and a sharp blade of a nose, his cheeks pitted from smallpox and burned red by the sun and wind. Despite his haggard appearance, there was a fierceness in his eyes. After almost three weeks of testimony, it was now time for him to deliver his defense. He cleared his throat, and in a quavering, indignant voice, he began to tell his side of the story.
A decade earlier, this young nation of sea wanderers became part of an international effort to discover and explore the last unknown portions of the planet. It had begun in 1768, with the voyages of the legendary British navigator James Cook. Earlier explorers such as Columbus and Magellan had been in search of new ways of getting to old, already well-known places—in particular, the spice-rich islands of the East Indies. Their discoveries had been accidental. There had been nothing accidental about Cook’s explorations of the South Pacific. When he returned with reports of palm-fringed islands teeming with people, plants, and animals unlike anything ever seen before, the scientists of Europe clamored for more. In the decades to come, England sent out twenty-eight exploring expeditions to the Pacific; France followed with seventeen, while Spain, Russia, and Holland mounted a total of thirteen voyages among them.

In spite of all these efforts to probe the islands of the Pacific, there remained a region that had so far resisted scientific inquiry: the ice-studded mystery at the bottom of the world. Cook had ventured below the Antarctic Circle and found nothing but snow and ice. Given the dangerous conditions and the slender prospect of significant results, further exploration hardly seemed warranted. But by 1838 there was renewed interest in the high southern latitudes. What had once been regarded as a forbidding wasteland was now one of the few places left where a discovery of Cook-like proportions might still be possible. Seventy years after the English explorer’s inaugural voyage, the icy waters of Antarctica were just one of the many destinations planned for America’s first oceangoing voyage of discovery.
No American or European expedition could compare in size to the flotillas launched by the Chinese emperor Yung-lo in the first half of the fifteenth century, some of which included 27,550 men and ventured as far as the east coast of Africa and perhaps beyond. When China chose to disband her fleets of discovery, Portugal became the world’s leader in exploration. Under the guidance of Prince Henry the Navigator, Portugal developed a new type of vessel called the caravel, specifically designed for exploration. Based on Egyptian and Greek designs and only seventy feet long, with shoal draft to keep from running aground on unknown coasts, the caravel enabled Portugal to become the first European country to round Africa’s Cape of Good Hope and, in 1498, reach the fabled shores of India. By that time, Spain had launched its own expeditions, placing its hopes in an Italian mariner named Christopher Columbus. Columbus insisted that the fastest way to the East was to sail west, and when he subsequently came upon the islands of the Bahamas and the Caribbean, he stubbornly insisted that they were what he had been looking for all along— the Spice Islands of the East Indies. Three hundred and forty-six years later, the history of exploration had come full circle as a nation from the New World Columbus refused to believe existed launched its own voyage of discovery.

With the U.S. Ex. Ex., America hoped to plant its flag in the world. Literally broadening the nation’s horizons, the Expedition’s ships would cover the Pacific Ocean from top to bottom and bring the United States international renown for its scientific endeavors as well as its bravado. European expeditions had served the cause of both science and empire, providing new lands with which to augment their countries’ already far-flung possessions around the world. The United States, on the other hand, had more than enough unexplored territory within its own borders. Commerce, not colonies, was what the U.S. was after. Besides establishing a stronger diplomatic presence throughout the Pacific, the Expedition sought to provide much-needed charts to American whalers, sealers, and China traders. Decades before America surveyed and mapped its own interior, this government-sponsored voyage of discovery would enable a young, determined nation to take its first tentative steps toward becoming an economic world power.

The Expedition was to attempt two forays south—one from Cape Horn, the other from Sydney, Australia, during the relatively warm months of January, February, and March. The time in between was to be spent surveying the islands of the South Pacific—particularly the little-known Fiji Group. The Expedition’s other priority was the Pacific Northwest. In the years since Lewis and Clark had ventured to the mouth of the Columbia River, the British and their Hudson’s Bay Company had come to dominate what was known as the Oregon territory. In hopes of laying the basis for the government’s future claim to the region, the Ex. Ex. was to complete the first American survey of the Columbia, and would continue down the coast to California’s San Francisco Bay, then still a part of Mexico. By the conclusion of the voyage— after stops at Manila, Singapore, and the Cape of Good Hope—the Expedition would become the last all- sail naval squadron to circumnavigate the world.

By any measure, the achievements of the Expedition would be extraordinary. After four years at sea, after losing two ships and twenty-eight officers and men, the Expedition logged 87,000 miles, surveyed 280 Pacific islands, and created 180 charts—some of which were still being used as late as World War II. The Expedition also mapped 800 miles of coastline in the Pacific Northwest and 1,500 miles of the icebound Antarctic coast. Just as important would be its contribution to the rise of science in America. The thousands of specimens and artifacts amassed by the Expedition’s scientists would become the foundation of the collections of the Smithsonian Institution. Indeed, without the Ex. Ex., there might never have been a national museum in Washington, D.C. The U.S. Botanic Garden, the U.S. Hydrographic Office, and the Naval Observatory all owe their existence, in varying degrees, to the Expedition.

Any one of these accomplishments would have been noteworthy. Taken together, they represent a national achievement on the order of the building of the Transcontinental Railroad and the Panama Canal. But if these wonders of technology and human resolve have become part of America’s legendary past, the U.S. Exploring Expedition has been largely forgotten. To understand why, we must look to the Expedition’s leader and the young officer who began the voyage as his commander’s biggest fan.

It had taken more than a decade to get the U.S. Ex. Ex. under way. By 1838, years of political infighting had severely damaged the Expedition’s credibility with the American people. But the turmoil made no difference to a twenty-two-year-old naval officer named William Reynolds. Reynolds was a passed midshipman—the pre-Annapolis equivalent of a Naval Academy graduate, who after several years of sea duty and study had passed a rigorous series of examinations. For Reynolds, the U.S. Ex. Ex. was the voyage of his young life, and on October 29, 1838—seventy-two days after the squadron’s departure—he poured out his enthusiasm into the pages of his journal. “And behold! Now a nation which a short time ago was a discovery itself...is taking its place among the enlightened of the world and endeavoring to contribute its mite in the cause of knowledge and research. For this seems the age in which all men’s minds are bent to learn all about the secrets of the world in which they inhabit.” Reynolds then turned his attention to the Expedition’s commander, Charles Wilkes, a controversial choice to lead such an ambitious undertaking. “Captain Wilkes is a man of great talent, perhaps genius,” Reynolds declared. After describing his leader’s extensive scientific and navigational background, he concluded, “In my humble opinion, Captain Wilkes is the most proper man who could have been found in the Navy to conduct this Expedition, and I have every confidence that he will accomplish all that is expected.”

Months later, after the Expedition had rounded Cape Horn, plunged south into the icy Drake Passage, and surveyed the island paradises of Polynesia, Reynolds would return to this passage in his journal. Over the reference to Wilkes he would scrawl, “great mistake, did not at this time know him.”
According to common practice, all the Expedition’s officers had been required to keep journals that they were to surrender to their commander at the end of the voyage. Unbeknownst to Wilkes, Reynolds kept two journals: an official log and a secret, far more personal journal that would eventually expand to two volumes and almost 200,000 words. Today these big, twelve-by-twenty-inch unpublished journals reside in the archives of Franklin and Marshall College in Reynolds’s ancestral home of Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

Sensitive and well-read, Reynolds was a natural writer, and his journals contain some of the best descriptions of the sea to come from a nineteenth-century American’s pen. But the journals are much more than the chronicle of a four-year voyage. Along with the twenty-one letters he wrote to his family back home, the journals tell the story of one man’s coming of age amid the ice floes of the Antarctic, the coral reefs of the South Seas, and the giant pines of the Pacific Northwest.

At the center of Reynolds’s account is his changing relationship with Wilkes, a relationship that would come to dramatize the tangled legacy of the Expedition. Largely because of its arrogant and uncompromising commander, the Ex. Ex. was never able to shake free of the personal animosities and political intrigue that had plagued it from the start. Even though his journal provides a remarkable window on the Expedition, Reynolds was unable, in the end, to fathom the seemingly inexplicable motivations of his commander. Indeed, for more than a century, Wilkes has stood astride the legacy of the Ex. Ex. like an inscrutable colossus, a forbidding impediment to all who would want to know more.

But there is a way to see past Wilkes’s rigid professional demeanor. The dozens of letters he wrote to his wife Jane during the long four years of the Ex. Ex. are full of startling revelations. Just a few months into the voyage, Wilkes almost cracked under the pressures of command. What happened to him over the course of the Expedition is part passion play, part object lesson in how the demands of leadership can at once confirm and transform a person’s character.

By all rights, the Ex. Ex. should have become an enduring source of national pride. But Charles Wilkes was no James Cook. Insecure and egotistical rather than self-effacing and confident, Wilkes had a talent for creating discord and conflict. And yet, there was something quintessentially American about Wilkes and the brash, boisterous, and overreaching expedition that he managed to forge in his own makeshift image.
Henry David Thoreau was also fascinated by the Ex. Ex. “What was the meaning of that South Sea Exploring Expedition,” he wrote in the final chapter of Walden, published in 1854, “with all its parade and expense, but an indirect recognition of the fact that there are continents and seas in the moral world, to which every man is an isthmus or an inlet, yet unexplored by him, but that it is easier to sail many thousand miles through cold and storm and cannibals, in a government ship, with five hundred men and boys to assist one, than it is to explore the private sea, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans of one’s being alone.”

In 1851, Herman Melville published Moby-Dick, a novel that includes several references to the U.S. Ex. Ex. More than a decade before, Melville had set out on his own personal voyage of discovery aboard a New Bedford whaleship bound for the very same waters then being plied by the Exploring Expedition. Later, while researching his whaling masterpiece, Melville read Wilkes’s narrative of the voyage with great interest. There he learned how Wilkes mercilessly drove his men beyond the edge of their endurance in search of the icy coast of Antarctica. One literary critic has even argued that Melville based his description of Captain Ahab’s mythic pursuit of the white whale on Wilkes’s search for the white continent.

Every generation has its great men and women, people who, for whatever reason, feel compelled to push themselves to achieve what others might feel is impossible or not worth the effort. Judged by those standards, Wilkes was a great man. But he was also vain, impulsive, and often cruel. Do his personal flaws negate his greatness? As Melville recognized, they were one and the same. “For all men tragically great,” Melville writes in Moby-Dick, “are made so through a certain morbidness. Be sure of this, O young ambition, all mortal greatness is but disease.”

For both Wilkes and Reynolds, the Exploring Expedition would be as much a voyage into the private sea described by Thoreau as it would be a voyage around the world. With their help, perhaps we can gain a new appreciation of an undertaking that should be a recognized and valued part of our nation’s heritage. The frontier of Lewis and Clark has long since been civilized out of existence. But as Wilkes and Reynolds came to discover, no one will ever civilize the sea.

(Continues…)



Excerpted from "Sea of Glory"
by .
Copyright © 2004 Nathaniel Philbrick.
Excerpted by permission of Penguin Publishing Group.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Table of Contents

Preface: Young Ambition
  1. The Great South Sea
  2. The Deplorable Expedition
  3. Most Glorious Hopes
  4. At Sea
  5. The Turning Point
  6. Commodore of the Pacific
  7. Antarctica
  8. A New Continent
  9. The Cannibal Isles
  10. Massacre at Malolo
  11. Mauna Loa
  12. The Wreck of the Peacock
  13. Homeward Bound
  14. Reckoning
  15. This Thing Called Science
  16. Legacy

Epilogue
Notes
Selected Bibliography
Acknowledgments
Index

What People are Saying About This

From the Publisher

Fascinating and meticulous... A wonderful retelling. (The New York Times Book Review)

A breathtaking account of one of history's greatest adventures. (Entertainment Weekly)

A worthy successor to In the Heart of the Sea. (The Wall Street Journal)

Sea of Glory is a grand saga of scientific and nautical accomplishment. (Newsweek)

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Sea of Glory: America's Voyage of Discovery, the U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 4.1 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 22 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
I am really at a loss on how to convey Philbrick¿s epic story and accomplishment to you. Unlike his last book, In the Heart of the Sea (which is a tremendous favorite of mine) which was an adventure story of survival Mr. Philbrick¿s SEA OF GLORY is a major contribution to U. S. History. How is it possible, that I had not heard of this expedition, it¿s results, it¿s contribution to the Smithsonian and science. Philbrick¿s answer is to blame its strange leader, Lieutenant Charles Wilkes. Yet the telling puts lots of blame on politics and personality as they impact history. But the great thing is, that although many may have been aware of this expedition, Mr. Philbrick has brought it alive for the general reader, and I suspect to the lesson plans of many U. S. History classes. Having just read OVER THE EDGE OF THE WORLD about Magellan¿s voyage three hundred years earlier I found it a great prequel to the story of the Wilke¿s expedition that circumnavigated the world and accomplished some amazing things. One of Philbrick¿s real accomplishments is the personalization of the voyage, told through the one of the Expeditions officers, William Reynolds who at first idolizes his commander only to form a ¿hate¿ that even colors his own judgement and ability to fairly assess the Exhibitions results. This personal story makes this narrative more compelling and entertaining. I highly recommend Sea of Glory.
Guest More than 1 year ago
SEA OF GLORY is more about Lt. Charles Wilkes and his command of the exploring expedition than about the expedition itself. While the successes and failures of the expedition depended largely on the personality of Lt. Wilkes, the reader does not get a sense of what the adventure was like outside of his interactions with his officers and men which was the main focus of the book and which became tiring to read about. What an opportunity to describe the daily life on the ships for four years! How did the men survive the cold of Antarctica; what type of food was eaten; how was the food cooked; how was laundry done; what type of illnesses did the men have and how were they treated, and so much more. Likewise, little description of the scientific findings of the exploration is presented except at the end when the numbers of various types of exhibits are listed. It would have made the book so much more interesting to have described how animals were collected, coral samples taken, plants discovered, etc.; about all that was mentioned was surveying the lands without adequate detail to understand how that was done. This book is far less educational and well rounded than UNDAUNTED COURAGE which chronicles the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Truly, a lost opportunity!
Guest More than 1 year ago
Both landlubbers and seafarers will find much to enjoy in Nathaniel Philbrick's engrossing account of the United States South Seas Exploring Expedition of 1838. Traversing the Pacific Ocean it was surely one of the largest voyages of discovery in the Western world. Leading this groundbreaking mission was Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, a dichotomous, controversial gentleman. However, there is no controversy whatsoever about the first-rate readings of this tale by vocal performers Dennis Boutsikaris and Scott Brick. Already familiar to audio book aficionados they bring a wealth of experience, assurance, and power to their readings. When it comes to stories of the sea, Nathaniel Philbrick has few peers. A National Book Award winner for The Tragedy of the Whaleship Essex and author of the enduring In the Heart of the Sea, he is director of the Egan Institute of Maritime Studies. Bringing the same meticulous research and thoughtful prose that was so evident in his previous works, Mr. Philbrick has crafted his latest tale richly laced with drama and adventure. Suffice it to say that Charles Wilkes was not a fit man to head such a venture, yet the endeavor was more than successful as 2000 new species were brought back and 280 Pacific Islands surveyed. Sea Of Glory is a monumental work; a gift for armchair adventurers and historians alike.
oldman on LibraryThing 21 hours ago
The story of the U.S. Exploring Expedition 1838 - 1842 is the subject of the Sea of Glory by Nathaniel Philbrick. A little known expedition intended to bring the US into the ranks of the exploring nations of the world actually did find, but due to failings of the leadership both ashore and afloat this expedition did not attain the grand goals set for it.
sergerca on LibraryThing 21 hours ago
An interesting read that took me a while to get into. I've read several Philbrick books now, and this is by far my least favorite. However, it is an interesting episode of American history of which I was not aware. I'm happy to have read it.
LuiMor on LibraryThing 5 days ago
Sea of Glory by Nathaniel Philbrick is non-fiction that reads like a fictional novel. The incredible details, events and stories that Philbrick tells create a thickly woven book that recounts the U.S. Exploring Expedition of 1838-1842. The novel focuses on the leader of the journey, Charles Wilkes and gives an insight into his life and the pressures put upon him.The U.S. Exploring Expedition was a government funded mission that¿s purpose was to explore and survey the coast of Antarctica, the South Seas, the Pacific Northwest and any islands along the way. One of the most interesting elements in this book is the source of information. Most of the story is taken from letters and journals written by the sailors themselves. Philbrick utilizes direct quotes from these sources to make the reader feel as if they are truly on the voyage themselves. He highlights a few specific sailors, most notably William Reynolds, a talented and likable writer. Another major factor in this book is the development of the characters. Much like a fictional book, the characters change drastically over the course of the book, for better or for worse. Wilkes starts out as a promising, intelligent and determined young man. During the Expedition he slowly begins to get power hungry, he cruelly punishes his sailors and loses himself in the process. He ends as a broken man.Some books are so entertaining they slip learning in without you knowing it. Sea of Glory is a perfect depiction of this. The entire book provides such a clear view of this voyage and the many disasters and successes they experience. Not only does it give this information, but it also gives background in a very interesting manner. Even people who dislike non-fiction may like this book. Anyone interested in sailing, exploring, geography and even human nature will definitely enjoy this book.
jztemple on LibraryThing 5 days ago
This book had the potential of being a rather interesting tale in the style of Undaunted Courage, the Stephen Ambrose classic about the Lewis and Clark expedition. Unfortunately the author chose to put much of the focus on the continuous bickering and infighting between the leader of the expedition and his subordinates. While some discussion of this would of course have been appropriate, it forms the main theme of the book and barely a page goes by without some Kitty Kelly like "who hates whom" revelations. The author also tends to skip over things like how the ships were operated or provide more descriptive details of the places visited. Not recommended unless you want more human drama (and dramatics) and less history.
bcquinnsmom on LibraryThing 3 months ago
Following "In the Heart of the Sea" by the same author, I was a tad concerned about reading this book. I know, I know, Heart of the Sea won an award or two and got rave reviews. But I really didn't like it all that much. However, since I had already bought the book, I started reading it and I will tell you, it runs rings around Heart of the Sea. Granted, the two are very different in terms of their subject matter, but the writing & research by Philbrick surpasses Heart of the Sea by far.Synopsis:The US Exploring Expedition (the Ex.Ex. as it is referred to throughout the book)was at the time one of the most extensive projects undertaken by the United States. However, it went largely uncelebrated at its conclusion for many reasons -- changes in politics in Washington DC; the drive west by settlers for gold & land; changes in the purpose and scope of the Navy itself -- but largely because of one man, Charles Wilkes, the leader of the expedition.Wilkes was somewhat arrogant, craved the limelight, and had a tempestuous temper. Worst of all, he was totally insecure, especially around those who were highly competent. He was not a natural seaman, and had no feel for the rhythms of sea voyages; and when others more competent than himself would point things out to him he more than not had them confined for insolence. Worst yet, although he was the commander of the expedition, he did not have the commensurate rank...he started the expedition as a lieutenant and ended it the same way, even though others serving under him were promoted. The other high-ranking officers in the fleet of the expedition were also lieutenants, so Wilkes appointed himself "captain" and flew the commodore flag on his vessel once they left the US coast. He was controlling & paranoid and saw others as "righteous outsiders" while he himself he saw as the champion, battling "ignorance and ineptitude." However, he had great ambition & drive, and although he is painted from all accounts to be a total jerk & a "Captain Bligh" (I must be careful ...since I read Caroline Alexander's version of the mutiny on the Bounty I don't want to throw that term around too loosely), he did get the job done. The expedition managed to sail far south to Antarctica and chart some hitherto unexplored coastline; it also charted the south seas islands & the Columbia River. At the same time, scientists brought back tons and tons of specimens, which helped to usher in the Smithsonian in Washington DC. Furthermore, on that voyage, observations were made regarding plate tectonics that were way ahead of their time as well as notions about evolution & anthropology. Wilkes so alienated both officers & men alike on this expedition that when he returned, rather than be welcomed as a hero in all his glory and receive the instant heretofore standard promotion that being an expedition leader provided, he found himself facing several charges from men he'd previously arrested at a court-martial. He didn't help matters much; at his first public lecture, he took the opportunity to blast the current adminstration. The bulk of the book is about Charles Wilkes & his role as leader of the expedition; yet Philbrick clearly elaborates on the nothingness to which the expedition itself was condemned. For all of their outstanding work, Wilkes, his men & the expedition faded into silence as the US grappled with new concerns.I very highly recommend this book to people who are interested in this sort of thing. It is well documented; most of his material comes from primary accounts of those who were there with Wilkes -- his men, his family, his enemies, his friends.
ksmyth on LibraryThing 4 months ago
Unlike my other books on the US Ex.Ex., Philbrick takes a long look at Charles Wilkes, and the politics that disrupted the expedition. He paints a picture of Wilkes as imperious and a poor sailor, but intelligent and good scientist. He was highly protective of his authority, and often overstepped it to take credit that did not belong to him. He also blamed failure on subordinates, when it was not their failure. It is a great story well told.
granddad More than 1 year ago
If you love history, the sea, and historical events that are more gripping than fiction, then you'll love this book.
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EricAngevine More than 1 year ago
This book was everything I hoped it would be. The narrative of the ambitious U.S. Exploring Expedition is captivating, and uncovers so much information about a historical event I was previously unaware of. The story reminded me of a few other books I've read, including the story of the Lewis & Clark expedition, Charles Darwin's voyage on the Beagle, and the fictional Aubrey & Maturin series. Which is my way of saying that it masterfully combines adventure, science, and exploration into a very readable package. The fact that the expedition came home with the scientific samples that eventually became the basis for the Smithsonian Institution is a perfect link to the modern reader's world. This was a story that needed to be told well, and Mr. Philbrick has done it.
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Guest More than 1 year ago
This book should be required reading for all military officers and business people. The protagonist, Lieutenant Charles Wilkes shows us how to lead: Promote yourself. The world will never recognize your important contributions unless you ceaselessly point them out. Ignore the long-standing traditions of your organization. Obviously, these petty confining rules were not meant to apply to you. Micromanage. Always remember that your subordinates cannot be trusted with any decisions, no matter how trivial. Be quick to to punish failure. When a subordinate fails in a task, as inevitably will happen due to his cravenness and incompetence, punish him harshly and publicly. Never praise success. Any success is entirely due to your prescience and courage in making executive decisions. In case of genuine danger, faint. Whatever the problem is will be gone when you wake up, whether that be here or in the hereafter. Beware of cabals. Your enemies are always scheming against you. Curry favor with your superiors. It is critical to fawn over your superiors and make them think you are their toady, even as you ignore their ridiculous orders.