A leading neuroscientist explores with authority, with imagination, and with unparalleled mastery how the brain constructs the mind and how the brain makes that mind conscious.
Antonio Damasio has spent the past thirty years researching and and revealing how the brain works. Here, in his most ambitious and stunning work yet, he rejects the long-standing idea that consciousness is somehow separate from the body, and presents compelling new scientific evidence that posits an evolutionary perspective. His view entails a radical change in the way the history of the conscious mind is viewed and told, suggesting that the brain’s development of a human self is a challenge to nature’s indifference. This development helps to open the way for the appearance of culture, perhaps one of our most defining characteristics as thinking and self-aware beings.
|Publisher:||Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group|
|Product dimensions:||5.22(w) x 8.70(h) x 0.56(d)|
About the Author
Antonio Damasio is University Professor, David Dornsife Professor of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Neurology, and director of the Brain and Creativity Institute at the University of Southern California. Damasio’s other books include Descartes’ Error; The Feeling of What Happens; and Looking for Spinoza. He has received the Honda Prize, the Prince of Asturias Award for Technical and Scientific Research, and, shared with his wife Hanna, the Pessoa, Signoret, and Cozzarelli prizes. Damasio is a fellow of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, and the European Academy of Sciences and Arts. He lives in Los Angeles.
Read an Excerpt
When I woke up, we were descending. I had been asleep long enough to miss the announcements about the landing and the weather. I had not been aware of myself or my surroundings. I had been unconscious.
Few things about our biology are as seemingly trivial as this commodity known as consciousness, the phenomenal ability that consists of having a mind equipped with an owner, a protagonist for one’s existence, a self inspecting the world inside and around, an agent seemingly ready for action.
Consciousness is not merely wakefulness. When I woke up, two brief paragraphs ago, I did not look around vacantly, taking in the sights and the sounds as if my awake mind belonged to no one. On the contrary, I knew, almost instantly, with little hesitation if any, without effort, that this was me, sitting on an airplane, my ﬂying identity coming home to Los Angeles with a long to-do list before the day would be over, aware of an odd combination of travel fatigue and enthusiasm for what was ahead, curious about the runway we would be landing on, and attentive to the adjustments of engine power that were bringing us to earth. No doubt, being awake was indispensable to this state, but wakefulness was hardly its main feature. What was that main feature? The fact that the myriad contents displayed in my mind, regardless of how vivid or well ordered, connected with me, the proprietor of my mind, through invisible strings that brought those contents together in the forward-moving feast we call self; and, no less important, the fact that the connection was felt. There was a feelingness to the experience of the connected me.
Awakening meant having my temporarily absent mind returned, but with me in it, both property (the mind) and proprietor (me) accounted for. Awakening allowed me to reemerge and survey my mental domains, the sky-wide projection of a magic movie, part documentary and part ﬁction, otherwise known as the conscious human mind.
We all have free access to consciousness, bubbling so easily and abundantly in our minds that without hesitation or apprehension we let it be turned off every night when we go to sleep and allow it to return every morning when the alarm clock rings, at least 365 times a year, not counting naps. And yet few things about our beings are as remarkable, foundational, and seemingly mysterious as consciousness. Without consciousness—that is, a mind endowed with subjectivity—you would have no way of knowing that you exist, let alone know who you are and what you think. Had subjectivity not begun, even if very modestly at ﬁrst, in living creatures far simpler than we are, memory and reasoning are not likely to have expanded in the prodigious way they did, and the evolutionary road for language and the elaborate human version of consciousness we now possess would not have been paved. Creativity would not have ﬂourished. There would have been no song, no painting, and no literature. Love would never have been love, just sex. Friendship would have been mere cooperative convenience. Pain would never have become suffering—not a bad thing, come to think of it— but an equivocal advantage given that pleasure would not have become bliss either. Had subjectivity not made its radical appearance, there would have been no knowing and no one to take notice, and consequently there would have been no history of what creatures did through the ages, no culture at all.
Although I have not yet provided a working deﬁnition of consciousness, I hope I am leaving no doubt as to what it means not to have consciousness: in the absence of consciousness, the personal view is suspended; we do not know of our existence; and we do not know that anything else exists. If consciousness had not developed in the course of evolution and expanded to its human version, the humanity we are now familiar with, in all its frailty and strength, would never have developed either. One shudders to think that a simple turn not taken might have meant the loss of the biological alternatives that make us truly human. But then, how would we ever have found out that something was missing?
We take consciousness for granted because it is so available, so easy to use, so elegant in its daily disappearing and reappearing acts, and yet, when we think of it, scientists and nonscientists alike, we do puzzle. What is consciousness made of? Mind with a twist, it seems to me, since we cannot be conscious without having a mind to be conscious of. But what is mind made of? Does mind come from the air or from the body? Smart people say it comes from the brain, that it is in the brain, but that is not a satisfactory reply. How does the brain do mind?
The fact that no one sees the minds of others, conscious or not, is especially mysterious. We can observe their bodies and their actions, what they do or say or write, and we can make informed guesses about what they think. But we cannot observe their minds, and only we ourselves can observe ours, from the inside, and through a rather narrow window. The properties of minds, let alone conscious minds, appear to be so radically different from those of visible living matter that thoughtful folk wonder how one process (conscious minds working) meshes with the other process (physical cells living together in aggregates called tissues).
But to say that conscious minds are mysterious—and on the face of it they are—is different from saying that the mystery is insoluble. It is different from saying that we shall never be able to understand how a living organism endowed with a brain develops a conscious mind.
Table of Contents
PART I STARTING OVER
1 Awakening 3
Goals and Reasons
Approaching the Problem
The Self as Witness
Overcoming a Misleading Intuition
An Integrated Perspective
A Preview of Main Ideas
Life and the Conscious Mind
2 From Life Regulation to Biological Value 31
The Implausibility of Reality
The Origins of Homeostasis
Cells, Multicellular Organisms, and Engineered Machines
Biological Value in Whole Organisms
The Success of Our Early Forerunners
Connecting Homeostasis, Value, and Consciousness
PART II WHAT'S IN A BRAIN THAT A MIND CAN BE?
3 Making Maps and Making Images 63
Maps and Images
Cutting Below the Surface
Maps and Minds
The Neurology of Mind
The Beginnings of Mind
Closer to the Making of Mind?
4 The Body in Mind 89
The Topic of the Mind
From Body to Brain
Representing Quantities and Constructing Qualities
Mapping Body States and Simulating Body States
The Source of an Idea
The Body-Minded Brain
5 Emotions and Feelings 108
Situating Emotion and Feeling
Defining Emotion and Feeling
Triggering and Executing Emotions
The Strange Case of William James
Feelings of Emotion
How Do We Feel an Emotion?
The Timing of Emotions and Feelings
The Varieties of Emotion
Up and Down the Emotional Range
An Aside on Admiration and Compassion
6 An Architecture for Memory 130
The Nature of Memory Records
Dispositions Came First, Maps Followed
Memory at Work
A Brief Aside on Kinds of Memory
A Possible Solution to the Problem
More on Convergence-Divergence Zones
The Model at Work
The How and Where of Perception and Recall
PART III BEING CONSCIOUS
7 Consciousness Observed 157
Breaking Consciousness Apart
Removing the Self and Keeping a Mind
Completing a Working Definition
Kinds of Consciousness
Human and Nonhuman Consciousness
What Consciousness is Not
The Freudian Unconscious
8 Building a Conscious Mind 180
A Working Hypothesis
Approaching the Conscious Brain
Previewing the Conscious Mind
The Ingredients of a Conscious Mind
Constructing the Core Self
The Core Self State
Touring the Brain as It Constructs a Conscious Mind
9 The Autobiographical Self 210
Memory Made Conscious
Constructing the Autobiographical Self
The Issue of Coordination
A Possible Role for the Posteromedial Cortices
The PMCs at Work
Other Considerations on the Posteromedial Cortices
A Closing Note on the Pathologies of Consciousness
10 Putting It Together 241
By Way of Summary
The Neurology of Consciousness
The Anatomical Bottleneck Behind the Conscious Mind
From the Ensemble Work of Large Anatomical Divisions to the Work of Neurons
When We Feel Our Perceptions
Qualia and Self
PART IV LONG AFTER CONSCIOUSNESS
11 Living with Consciousness 267
Why Consciousness Prevailed
Self and the Issue of Control
An Aside on the Unconscious
A Note on the Genomic Unconscious
The Feeling of Conscious Will
Educating the Cognitive Unconscious
Brain and Justice
Nature and Culture
Self Comes to Mind
The Consequences of a Reflective Self
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
Damasio's passion for understanding the self is seen within the first few sentences of the text. If your looking for a book that doesn't beat around the bush and gets straight to the point. This is it.
This is an excellent book. It discusses brain function and consciousness in a very understandable way, and includes many interesting anecdotes that illustrate the points very well. I recommend it very highly.