A descriptive account based on the extensive topic of soil fertility has been presented in this book. It is a compilation of topics presented by internationally acclaimed experts in the field of soil fertility. It discusses in detail about various biological processes along with the utilization of organic and inorganic fertilizers and how they contribute towards improving soil fertility. It also includes discussions on improving fertilizer recommendation and efficiency and elaborates leaf sampling and analysis. Standardized methods of analysis and proper leaf sampling play important roles in providing good recommendations.