ISBN-10:
1580538657
ISBN-13:
9781580538657
Pub. Date:
07/31/2004
Publisher:
Artech House, Incorporated
Space-Time Codes And Mimo Systems

Space-Time Codes And Mimo Systems

by Mohinder Jankiraman

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Overview

This textbook is for graduate students, practicing engineers, and researchers who are familiar with basic digital communications, linear algebra, and probability theory. It introduces space-time coding and multi-antenna systems, also called multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, using a consistent set of notations and avoiding excessing mathematics. The disk contains software specific to various chapters, and emphasizes simplicity and clarity over rigor. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781580538657
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 07/31/2004
Series: Artech House Universal Personal Communications Series
Edition description: BK&CD-ROM
Pages: 356
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.81(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexiii
Acknowledgmentsxv
Chapter 1Introduction1
1.1The Crowded Spectrum1
1.2Need for High Data Rates1
1.3Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems6
1.4Internet Protocol8
1.4.1Routing Operations8
1.4.2The Transmission Control Protocol8
1.5Wireless Internet Protocol11
References12
Chapter 2The MIMO Wireless Channel15
2.1Introduction15
2.2Preliminaries15
2.2.1Multiantenna Systems15
2.2.2Array Gain15
2.2.3Diversity Gain16
2.2.4Data Pipes18
2.2.5Spatial Multiplexing19
2.2.6Additional Terms19
2.3MIMO System Model20
2.4MIMO System Capacity22
2.5Channel Unknown to the Transmitter23
2.6Channel Known to the Transmitter24
2.6.1Water-Pouring Principle24
2.6.2Capacity When Channel Is Known to the Transmitter26
2.7Deterministic Channels27
2.7.1SIMO Channel Capacity27
2.7.2MISO Channel Capacity28
2.8Random Channels29
2.8.1Ergodic Capacity30
2.8.2Outage Capacity31
2.9Influence of Fading Correlation on MIMO Capacity32
2.10Influence of LOS on MIMO Capacity35
2.11Influence of XPD on MIMO Capacity38
2.12Keyhole Effect: Degenerate Channels39
2.13Capacity of Frequency Selective MIMO Channels42
2.13.1Channel Unknown to the Transmitter43
2.13.2Channel Known to the Transmitter44
References45
Chapter 3Channel Propagation, Fading, and Link Budget Analysis47
3.1Introduction47
3.2Radio Wave Propagation47
3.2.1Reflection47
3.2.2Diffraction48
3.2.3Scattering48
3.3Large-Scale Fading or Macroscopic Fading50
3.3.1Free-Space Propagation Model50
3.3.2Outdoor Propagation Models53
3.4Small-Scale Fading57
3.4.1Microscopic Fading58
3.5Microscopic Fading Measurements65
3.5.1Direct Pulse Measurements66
3.5.2Spread-Spectrum Sliding Correlator Channel Sounding66
3.5.3Frequency Domain Channel Sounding68
3.6Antenna Diversity69
3.6.1Diversity Combining Methods69
3.6.2MIMO Channels73
References73
Chapter 4Space-Time Block Coding75
4.1Introduction75
4.2Delay Diversity Scheme75
4.3Alamouti Space-Time Code76
4.3.1Maximum Likelihood Decoding78
4.3.2Maximum Ratio Combining78
4.3.3Transmit Diversity79
4.3.4Summary of Alamouti's Scheme80
4.4Space-Time Block Codes80
4.4.1STBC for Real Signal Constellations82
4.4.2STBC for Complex Signal Constellations84
4.5Decoding of STBC86
4.6Simulation Results88
4.7Imperfect Channel Estimation: A Performance Analysis92
4.7.1Least Squares Estimation93
4.7.2Minimum Mean Squares Estimation94
4.7.3Channel Estimation Algorithm Using the FFT Method95
4.8Effect of Antenna Correlation on Performance97
4.9Dominant Eigenmode Transmission98
4.10Capacity of OSTBC Channels100
4.11Simulation Exercises101
References101
Chapter 5Space-Time Trellis Codes103
5.1Introduction103
5.2Space-Time Coded Systems103
5.3Space-Time Code Word Design Criteria105
5.4Design of Space-Time Trellis Codes on Slow Fading Channels107
5.4.1Error Probability on Slow Fading Channels107
5.4.2Design Criteria for Slow Rayleigh Fading STTCs109
5.4.3Encoding/Decoding of STTCs for Quasi-Static Flat Fading Channels113
5.4.4Code Construction for Quasi-Static Flat Fading Channels116
5.4.5Example Using 4-PSK117
5.5Design of Space-Time Trellis Codes on Fast Fading Channels121
5.5.1Error Probability on Fast Fading Channels121
5.6Performance Analysis in a Slow Fading Channel126
5.7Performance Analysis in a Fast Fading Channel128
5.8The Effect of Imperfect Channel Estimation on Code Performance128
5.9Effect of Antenna Correlation on Performance130
5.10Delay Diversity as an STTC130
5.11Comparison of STBC and STTC131
5.12Simulation Exercises134
References135
Chapter 6Layered Space-Time Codes137
6.1Introduction137
6.2LST Transmitters: Types of Encoding137
6.2.1Horizontal Encoding137
6.2.2Vertical Encoding144
6.3Layered Space-Time Coding: Design Criteria148
6.3.1Performance Analysis of an HLST System149
6.3.2Performance Analysis of a DLST System152
6.3.3Code Design Criteria154
6.4LST Receivers157
6.4.1ML Receiver157
6.4.2Zero-Forcing Receiver157
6.4.3MMSE Receiver158
6.4.4Successive Cancellation Receiver158
6.4.5Zero Forcing V-BLAST Receiver159
6.4.6MMSE V-BLAST Receiver159
6.4.7Simulation Results160
6.4.8Receivers for HLST and DLST Systems161
6.5Iterative Receivers161
6.6The Effect of Imperfect Channel Estimation on Code Performance162
6.7Effect of Antenna Correlation on Performance162
6.8Diversity Performance of SM Receivers162
6.9Summary163
6.10Simulation Exercises164
References164
Chapter 7Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing165
7.1Introduction165
7.2Basic Principles165
7.2.1Data Transmission over Multipath Channels165
7.2.2Single Carrier Approach165
7.2.3Multicarrier Approach167
7.3OFDM167
7.4OFDM Generation168
7.5Synchronization Issues171
7.5.1Symbol Time and Frequency Carrier Offset Derivation171
7.6Survey of Synchronization Techniques178
7.6.1Symbol Synchronization178
7.7Frequency Offset Estimation189
7.8Carrier Synchronization190
7.8.1Pilots191
7.8.2Cyclic Prefix191
7.9Sampling-Frequency Synchronization191
7.10Performance Analysis of Synchronization Techniques192
7.10.1Symbol Synchronization192
7.11ML Estimation of Timing and Frequency Offset193
7.11.1The Correlation Algorithm Using the Guard Interval194
7.12Carrier Synchronization195
7.12.1Pilots195
7.13Sampling-Frequency Synchronization198
7.14Observations198
7.15Suggested Solution to the Synchronization Problem199
7.16Channel Estimation200
7.17Peak to Average Power Ratio200
7.17.1Schemes for Reduction of PAPR201
7.18Application to Packet Transmission Systems206
7.19Conclusions206
7.20Simulation Exercises207
References207
Chapter 8IEEE 802.11a Packet Transmission System209
8.1Introduction209
8.2Background210
8.3Wireless LAN Topology210
8.4IEEE 802.11 Standard Family211
8.4.1802.11211
8.4.2802.11b211
8.4.3802.11a212
8.4.4Others212
8.5WLAN Protocol Layer Architecture212
8.6Medium Access Control213
8.6.1IEEE 802.11 MAC Layer213
8.7Physical Layer215
8.7.1Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum216
8.7.2Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum216
8.7.3Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing and 5-GHz WLAN Physical Layer217
8.8Synchronization and Packet Detection Algorithms224
8.8.1Packet Detection224
8.8.2Symbol Timing226
8.8.3Sampling Clock Frequency Error227
8.8.4Carrier Frequency Synchronization229
8.8.5Carrier Phase Tracking232
8.9Channel Estimation233
References234
Chapter 9Space-Time Coding for Broadband Channel237
9.1Introduction237
9.2Performance of Space-Time Coding on Frequency-Selective Fading Channels237
9.3Space-Time Coding in Wideband OFDM Systems239
9.4Capacity of MIMO-OFDM Systems240
9.4.1Assumptions242
9.4.2Mutual Information244
9.4.3Ergodic Capacity and Outage Capacity246
9.4.4Influence of Channel and System Parameters on Capacity247
9.4.5Simulations251
9.4.6Summary254
9.5Performance Analysis of MIMO-OFDM Systems254
9.5.1Analysis260
9.6CDMA-OFDM-MIMO260
9.6.1Introduction260
9.6.2Overall System Concept262
9.6.3Comparison with MC-CDMA267
9.6.4Interfacing with MIMO272
9.7Simulation Exercises272
References272
Chapter 10The Way Ahead275
10.1Introduction275
10.2MIMO Multiuser275
10.2.1Capacity in the Uplink276
10.3Linear Dispersion Coding280
10.3.1Hassibi and Hochwald Method281
10.3.2Method of Heath and Paulraj288
10.4Conclusion292
References292
Appendix AWideband Simulator: Description and Explanatory Notes295
A.1Introduction295
A.2Files Listing295
A.3SISO Mode297
A.4SIMO Mode300
A.5MISO/MIMO Mode301
A.6V-BLAST Mode302
Reference303
Appendix BNarrowband Simulator305
B.1Introduction305
B.2Description305
List of Acronyms307
List of Symbols311
About the Author313
Index315

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