The Chiefs of Council Bluffs: Five Leaders of the Missouri Valley Tribes

The Chiefs of Council Bluffs: Five Leaders of the Missouri Valley Tribes

by Gail Geo Holmes

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Overview

The Chiefs of Council Bluffs: Five Leaders of the Missouri Valley Tribes by Gail Geo Holmes


Two centuries ago, the fierce winds of change were sweeping through the Middle Missouri Valley. French, Spanish and then American traders and settlers had begun pouring in. In the midst of this time of tumult and transition, five chiefs rose up to lead their peoples: Omaha Chief Big Elk, the Pottawatamie/Ottawa/Chippewa Tribe's Captain Billy Caldwell, Ioway Chief Wangewaha (called Hard Heart), Pawnee Brave Petalesharo and Ponca Chief Standing Bear. Historian Gail Holmes tells the story of their leadership as the land was redefined beneath them.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781609496135
Publisher: History Press, The
Publication date: 06/26/2012
Pages: 128
Sales rank: 1,238,851
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.40(d)

About the Author


Gail Geo. Holmes was born in 1923. A North Dakota farm boy, he was uprooted by World War II. After the war ended, he moved in 1946 to Geneva, Switzerland, and published the weekly English-language newspaper Swiss Reporter. In 1950, he was asked to serve as press officer for the World Plenary of YMCAs at Nyborg Strand, Denmark. Holmes also served as copy editor of the Minot, North Dakota Daily News. Later, he served as high courts reporter and then assistant provincial editor of the Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada Leader Post. With his wife and Swiss-born daughter, Rondee, in tow, Holmes took a job as copy editor at the Omaha, Nebraska World Herald. He was called in 1971 to be president of a Native American branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Gail fell in love with Native American and pioneer history in the Middle Missouri Valley. The Chiefs of Council Bluffs: Five Leaders of the Missouri Valley Tribes is a product of that love.

Table of Contents

1 Five Led Through Winds of Change 9

2 Omaha Chief Big Elk 14

3 Pottawatamie/Ottawa/Chippewa Leader Captain Billy Caldwell 17

4 Chief Hard Heart Quit His Ioway Tribe Favoring the British in the War of 1812 21

5 Petalesharo Broke Pawnee Tradition of Human Sacrifice 26

6 Standing Bear Won Change in American Law for Indians 30

7 American Policies in the New Republic 36

8 Jackson's Indian Removal Plan 41

9 Ancient Tribal Groups Also Migrated 55

10 Politicians Moved Native American Tribes Around 73

11 End of Indian Sovereignty in the Valley Foreseen 86

12 Mormons Built on Both Sides of Mid-Missouri River 99

13 Indians Demanded Rent from the Mormons 109

About the Author 127

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