Innovation, Dual Use, and Security: Managing the Risks of Emerging Biological and Chemical Technologies

Overview

Recent advances in disciplines such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, and neuropharmacology entail a "dual-use dilemma" because they promise benefits for human health and welfare yet pose the risk of misuse for hostile purposes. The emerging field of synthetic genomics, for example, can produce custom DNA molecules for life-saving drugs but also makes possible the creation of deadly viral agents for biological warfare or terrorism. The challenge for policymakers is to prevent the misuse of these new technologies ...

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Innovation, Dual Use, and Security: Managing the Risks of Emerging Biological and Chemical Technologies

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Overview

Recent advances in disciplines such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, and neuropharmacology entail a "dual-use dilemma" because they promise benefits for human health and welfare yet pose the risk of misuse for hostile purposes. The emerging field of synthetic genomics, for example, can produce custom DNA molecules for life-saving drugs but also makes possible the creation of deadly viral agents for biological warfare or terrorism. The challenge for policymakers is to prevent the misuse of these new technologies without forgoing their benefits. Innovation, Dual Use, and Security offers a systematic approach for managing the dual-use dilemma. The book presents a "decision framework" for assessing the security risks of emerging technologies and fashioning governance strategies to manage those risks. This framework is applied to fourteen contemporary case studies, including synthetic genomics, DNAshuffling and directed evolution, combinatorial chemistry, protein engineering, immunological modulation, and aerosol vaccines. The book also draws useful lessons from two historical cases: the development of the V-series nerve agents in Britain and the use and misuse of LSD by the U.S. Army and the CIA.

Innovation, Dual Use, and Security offers a comprehensive, multifaceted introduction to the challenges of governing dual-use technologies in an era of rapid innovation. The book will be of interest to government officials and other practitioners as well as to students and scholars in security studies, science and technology studies, biology, and chemistry.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"…The book gives an excellent comprehensive analysis of the dual-use dilemma for technologies that have not only beneficial uses but also the potential to cause serious harm. It is a valuable resource for bioethics or biotechnology courses and should surely generate great class discussions." -- M. C. Pavao, Choice

The MIT Press

" Innovation, Dual Use, and Security was brought to completion under extraordinary circumstances. Quibbles aside, it is stuffed with fascinating information interpreted by people who know their chosen subjects. It is well written, well edited, and even well copy edited. I have seen no better book on this subject." -- Robert Hunt
Sprinkle
, BioScience

The MIT Press

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780262516969
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • Publication date: 4/30/2012
  • Pages: 368
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

The late Jonathan B. Tucker was a Senior Fellow at the Federation of American Scientists. He was the editor of Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and BiologicalWeapons (MIT Press, 2000) and the author of Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox and War of Nerves: Chemical Warfare from World War I toAl-Qaeda.

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Table of Contents

Foreword Richard Danzig ix

1 Introduction Jonathan B. Tucker 1

I Assessing and Managing Dual-Use Risks 17

2 Review of the Literature on Dual Use Jonathan B. Tucker 19

3 Current Dual-Use Governance Measures Lori P. Knowles 45

4 The Decision Framework Jonathan B. Tucker 67

II Contemporary Case Studies 85

A Technologies for the Acquisition of Novel Biological or Molecular Diversity 87

5 Combinatorial Chemistry and High-Throughput Screening Jonathan B. Tucker 89

6 DNA Shuffling and Directed Evolution Gerald L. Epstein 101

B Technologies for Directed Design 117

7 Protein Engineering Catherine Jefferson 119

8 Synthesis of Viral Genomes Filippa Lentzos Pamela Silver 133

9 Synthetic Biology with Standard Parts Alexander Kelle 147

C Technologies for the Manipulation of Biological Systems 161

10 Development of Psychoactive Drags Malcolm R. Dando 163

11 Synthesis of Peptide Bioregulators Ralf Trapp 173

12 Immunological Modulation Nancy Connell 187

13 Personal Genomics Nishal Mohan 199

14 RNA Interference Matthew Metz 209

15 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Jonathan D. Moreno 223

D Technologies for Production, Packaging, or Delivery 233

16 Chemical Micro Process Devices Amy E. Smithson 235

17 Gene Therapy Gail Javitt Anya Prince 249

18 Aerosol Vaccines Raymond A. Zilinskas Hussein Alramini 261

III Historical Case Studies 271

19 Development of the V-Series Nerve Agents Caitríona McLeish Brian Balmer 273

20 The Use and Misuse of LSD by the U.S. Army and the CIA Mark Wheelis 289

IV Findings and Conclusions 303

21 Governance of Emerging Dual-Use Technologies Kirk C. Bansak Jonathan B. Tucker 305

Select Bibliography 341

Contributors 345

Index 347

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