Agnes Grey (Barnes & Noble Classics Series)

Agnes Grey (Barnes & Noble Classics Series)

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Agnes Grey, by Anne Bronte, is part of the Barnes & Noble Classics series, which offers quality editions at affordable prices to the student and the general reader, including new scholarship, thoughtful design, and pages of carefully crafted extras. Here are some of the remarkable features of Barnes & Noble Classics:
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Written when women—and workers generally—had few rights in England, Agnes Grey exposes the brutal inequities of the rigid class system in mid-nineteenth century Britain. Agnes comes from a respectable middle-class family, but their financial reverses have forced her to seek work as a governess. Pampered and protected at home, she is unprepared for the harsh reality of a governess’s life. At the Bloomfields and later the Murrays, she suffers under the snobbery and sadism of the selfish, self-indulgent upper-class adults and the shrieking insolence of their spoiled children. Worse, the unique social and economic position of a governess—“beneath” her employers but “above” their servants—condemns her to a life of loneliness.

Less celebrated than her older sisters Charlotte and Emily, Anne Bronte was also less interested in spinning wildly symbolic, romantic tales and more determined to draw realistic images of conditions in Victorian England that need changing. While Charlotte’s Jane Eyre features a governess who eventually and improbably marries her employer, Agnes Grey deals with the actual experiences of middle-class working women, experiences Anne had herself endured during her hateful tenure as a governess.

Fred Schwarzbach serves as Associate Dean and teaches in the General Studies Program of New York University. He is the author of Dickens and the City, the editor of Victorian Artists and the City and Dickens’s American Notes, a contributor to the Oxford Reader’s Companion to Dickens, and the author of scores of articles, essays, and reviews on Victorian life and letters.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781593083236
Publisher: Barnes & Noble
Publication date: 10/05/2005
Series: Barnes & Noble Classics Series
Pages: 256
Sales rank: 41,297
Product dimensions: 5.18(w) x 8.00(h) x 0.64(d)

Read an Excerpt

From Fred Schwarzbach’s Introduction to Agnes Grey

It is impossible for any of us to approach the Brontës without calling up the Brontë myth. We are all familiar with its outlines. The isolated family house on the edge of a bleak Yorkshire moor. The four young children, Charlotte, Branwell, Emily, and Anne, their mother and elder sisters all dead, now in the care of a stern Calvinist aunt. The Reverend Patrick Brontë, a failed writer himself, reclusive, brooding, and subject to periods of dark rage. Then, through the agency of a present of toy soldiers, the children begin writing sagas in which the soldiers come to life. All four are gifted, though Branwell drinks himself to an early death, while the three young women precociously develop writing careers—Emily dying young of the family curse of tuberculosis, and Charlotte living longer, only to die shortly after her marriage. Anne, the youngest, is also the quietest and least talented; modest, religious, and industrious, she too dies of TB at an early age.

The narrative, like any myth, partakes of some truths but embodies a great deal of fantasy—and a great deal of that linked to the famous Wyler-Olivier-Oberon film of Wuthering Heights (1939). To begin: The parsonage was at the edge of a large, bustling mill town; the aunt appears to have been loving and kind and an evangelical Methodist, a far cry from Calvinism; Patrick Brontë was actively engaged in the affairs of the parish and the community, and clearly much concerned with the education and welfare of his children; and so on. But the myth is probably most unfair in its relegation of Anne Brontë to a bit player in the family drama—in fact, she was, though the youngest, probably the most precocious of them all as a writer, producing two novels and a substantial body of poems by the time she died at twenty-nine.

Anne’s relegation to a minor role within the family happened not long after her death. Her second novel, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall—the story of a wife who abandons her husband to live under an assumed name and who commits the even greater moral crime of falling in love with another man while her husband lives—was nothing short of scandalous in its subject matter. By contemporary standards, no young woman could write about immoral acts without either knowing of them firsthand or by being tainted by having imagined them—in either case, her reputation was tarnished beyond repair. After Anne died, Charlotte tried to defend her sister against charges of moral impropriety by controlling the public representation of Anne’s character (and, similarly, that of Emily, whose reputation suffered from her authorship of Wuthering Heights), and it was she who began constructing the image of a quiet, passive, deeply religious (and by implication not as talented) Anne. Deeply religious she was, but far from quiet and passive—and she was very talented.

A useful starting point will be the facts of her life, which shed some considerable light on her character and her interests. The circumstances of the family are somewhat exceptional: Anne’s father was very much a self-made man, even making of his humble Irish surname (Prunty or Brunty) the rather more impressive, aristocratic, and vaguely French-sounding Brontë. The son of a farmer, and at first a blacksmith’s assistant, he was by age seventeen a village schoolmaster, but in 1802 his prospects changed dramatically when he managed to secure a scholarship to St. Johns College, Cambridge, where he prepared for a clerical career. He rose through the ranks of the church, acquiring along the way, in 1812, a respectable and mature wife, Maria Branwell. By 1820 they were settled in Haworth, where Reverend Brontë was perpetual curate (that is, he held the office for life) of a large, populous parish. Anne, the sixth and last child, was born on January 17, 1820, three months before the move to Haworth.

Not long after, in 1821, Mrs. Brontë died. Her sister Elizabeth joined the family to superintend the children and the household. But further tragedy was in store, when the two eldest girls, Maria and Elizabeth, returned from school ill in 1825 and soon died. (Charlotte and Emily had followed their sisters to the same school but now were brought home.) This may have been due to the arrival of what would, sadly, be their only lasting legacy to the family—tuberculosis, which many years later would carry off Emily and Anne, and possibly Branwell, too. One effect of this was Patrick’s determination that he would educate the remaining children at home, at least for the major part of their schooling; another effect was that the remaining children became extremely close emotionally, tied to each other, to their aunt, to their father, and to Haworth itself.

Still, though none of us can choose our parents, it was a great stroke of luck for any girl at this time to be the daughter of a clergyman. Young women of the lower ranks of the professional and middle classes rarely were allowed any education beyond music, drawing, and the smattering of general knowledge deemed sufficient to entertain prospective husbands by the distaff side of the hearth. But a clergyman’s daughter had access to both a learned father and his library, and the Brontë girls were luckier still in that Patrick seemed ready to teach them fully much as he did Branwell. Certainly it was also fortuitous that Patrick was an author himself, a writer not only (necessarily) of weekly sermons, but a published poet and essayist of some genuine local repute. They read widely in the standard works of English literature; they subscribed to leading periodicals; and they had access to a lending library an easy walk away in the next town, Keighley. Anne could not have known this at first, but she was receiving excellent training to be a governess, learning music, drawing, and even Latin along with more general studies in literature, history, and geography.

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Agnes Grey (Barnes & Noble Classics Series) 3.7 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 155 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
Anne Bronte is a step ahead of her sisters, while I loved Wuthering Heights, Jane Eyre, The Professor and Villete (haven't read Shirley yet! :p) I have to confess I was happy to see a woman write in plain words, ezpressing ideas and feelings that were natural and realistic. Instead of being the too forebearing Jane who berated herself for 'daring' to love Rochester Agnes can look at her employers and see clearly that she is their superior... and tell the reader so without malice or vanity! The language at time may appear slightly immature, but it's wonderfully genuine! Agnes is constantly chiding herself about how she should have said more, or said less, or said something clever, or said nothing! It's great because we as women do that now... and will FOREVER!
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
To start with, I think I figured out a few patterns with the Bronte sister's work. I've currently read four books of theirs and I've noticed that the beginning chapters of: Wuthering Heights, Jane Eyre, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall and now Agnes Grey require a lot patience from the reader. The books didn't exactly capture my attention at first. Like I said this has happened four times now, BUT once you get past the opening chapters and into the story, they do grab you and pull you into their worlds, but you have to be patient. I've read some reviews saying that the Bronte sisters were famous for their "wordy or flowery speech", I enjoy that kind of speech, but when you are really ready for something magical or interesting to happen or conclude, that's when the language gets dull and starts to ramble on and you just want to skim ahead. Honestly, I loved this book and don't get me wrong, I really enjoy the Bronte sisters but the stalling and rambling parts of their wonderful, original books should just be noted for any potential reader. Now saying that, I've also noticed that one of the sisters work will magically speak to you and touch you, whether it's Emily's "Wuthering Heights", Charlotte's "Jane Eyre" (these are the more well known books but there are so many more to explore). Wuthering Heights grabbed my attention and it's now one of my all time favorite reads, but I never really had a book of any genre speak to me more than "Agnes Grey". On the surface, it's a simple story of a young woman and her journey as a newly fledged governess, but it's so much more than this. The beauty and the magic of the words of Anne Bronte brought me to tears in a few parts of her tale. It's hard to explain, but if you have ever wanted to pursue a dream so badly and then had to learn some lessons a hard and cruel way out in the real world, then you can identify with this book. The way this author conveys and explains love, affection, and simple attraction is truly moving. This book by no means has the action or gothic mystery like her sister Emily's "Wuthering Heights" but still "Agnes Grey" makes you search yourself and will have you thinking and questioning yourself days after you finish the last page. I really loved and enjoyed this book, however I can see where a lot of readers will not appreciate it's understated messages. You will either love this story or move on.
Guest More than 1 year ago
The Bronte sisters novels are amazing! Jane Eyre is my personal fav, but Agnes Grey is also amazing!
FARIEQUEENE More than 1 year ago
I enjoy this because through fiction, one can often catch a glimpse of what life was like during the mid-nineteenth century. Agnes struggles with education, class, and duty in this quaint novel.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
This is the first time I've read anything by Anne Bronte; but Wuthering Heights and Jane Eyre are two of my favorite books. I did enjoy this book by the youngest Bronte. It is sensitive and easy to read. The main character is interesting; but some of the other characters are almost unbelievably nasty, mean or just hateful. I doubt it will go on my "Read Again List" with the two afore mentioned books by her sisters. However, it is a good read overall.
Guest More than 1 year ago
As is generally written, Anne Bronte's storyreflects the life of a governess during hertime and place. No doubt greater detail would give us even a clearer picture of suchsituations. There is enough descriptionhowever to let us know it was a position fewwould want. The story is not all that, andwe do read about other aspects of thosetimes, and it does end happily on a love notewhich makes it satisfactory to the romantic.Anne is an excellent writer and should indeedbe given more credit and recognition than weusually find. This affordable edition is truly one to own, for it includes end notes,a biographical commentary by CharlotteBronte, explanations of certain local orarchaic expressions, an introduction by theAssociate Dean of General Studies at NYU,Victorian era reviews and a further readinglist. I will comment that Anne Bronte herselfand her character Agnes Grey were devoutChristians interested in the Bible, andthroughout the story Biblical phrases andreferences are sprinkled which will turn off some people, and be welcomed by others. (This is mentioned for those wanting a few more details about the story.)
Guest More than 1 year ago
I must say I loved Jane Eyre more. Jane Eyre is exciting, passionate and superiorly original. However I enjoyed this one beacuse it plainly describes the life of a real life governess, not an extraordinary one. It really gave me the idea of how simple people lived in the victorian era. This book is short and easy to read, and while it may not contain the moral topics present in Jane Eyre, I enjoyed it anyway.
Guest More than 1 year ago
As a person who has read Jane Eyre four times, I must say that this story is a lot less agonizing. It is still richly emotional. Agnes is an endearing character and the end couldn't be more perfect!
Guest More than 1 year ago
Agnes Grey is certainly not Ann Bronte's finest masterpiece, but it is definately an engrossing novel, simple, but certain. Agnes Grey stands for the young, poor woman looking for love and a life, a story almost similiar to Charlotte's novel Jane Eyre, but Agnes Grey has found a place in my heart that will never hold Jane Eyre. I truly loved this shadowed novel by the Bronte sister who stands in the background of her sisters, but who still stands firm
Guest More than 1 year ago
Agnes Grey is a wonderful portrayal of the life of a young girl striving to bring meaning and love to her life. Ms. Grey is a simple, overlooked girl full of knowledge and goodness. Surrounded by those with power and money, Agnes realizes that wealth does not bring happiness or refinement.
ctpress on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
It can be discussed how great a classic this is. Certainly not anything like Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights. Maybe even just a classic because, well, she's the third sister¿.and yet, here I've read it again - and enjoyed it even more this second time. Based on Anne's own experiences as an underpaid and unappreciated governess - we follow the naive and timid Agnes Grey as she's starting a new life as a governess. Her gentle and meek nature are certainly worthy of praise, but not the best weapons to tame two wild unruling children - she is simply run over by the double trouble. Then she moves on to another post - to take care of two conceited teenage girls.Not is all gloom. There's people to meet in the local church - the new priest, Mr. Weston is one of them - and he seems to have perception enough to see Agnes' good character and noble heart.Agnes is one of those girls who go through life unnoticed (maybe like Anne Brontë herself?) - she's willing to suffer and be ignored and bullied - above and beyond duty - long after we mere mortals have run away. She's "downstairs" and "upstairs" keep reminding her of that fact.I believe Anne must have enjoyed getting this story out of her system so to speak. Like a therapeutic thing - giving expression to all the unfair treatment she herself suffered.
chase4720 on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Not nearly as remarkable as her sisters' novels, Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights, but still Agnes Grey was a good read. I liked that it was quick unlike many of the classics that can be hard to get through.
RoseCityReader on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
The Nanny Diaries of the 19th Century.
jmchshannon on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
This book was an almost unanimous selection for my book club. When we were voting, we were in the throes of some very weighty books, Little Dorrit, The Three Musketeers, Of Human Bondage, and the like. I think almost everyone in the group was ready for something a little lighter and definitely shorter. Agnes Grey definitely fits that bill. If you read it looking for similarities in writing to her sisters, however, you will be disappointed. Anne is the vanilla to Jane and Charlotte's more exotic chocolate. Agnes Grey contains no Gothic elements. It is slightly preachy and somewhat predictable. I would term it an overall pleasant book to read, albeit one that is not going to change the world.Agnes is just plain nice. She could have been very annoying with her goodness, but I think Anne avoids that very deftly. While on the outside she may appear like a goody-two-shoes who does nothing but preach to her charges, she throws in enough criticism for the reader's eyes that makes her story quite interesting and fun to read. In general, the entire story is a good, old-fashioned love story. I may not be particularly happy that Anne finds true happiness through marriage (because I get tired of that lesson), I do understand that for women in the 1800s, there truly were very few options.Speaking of options, I do believe Agnes Grey does a tremendous job of showcasing the struggles of governesses and the limited options for women who needed to work to support their families. As Agnes (and Anne) can attest, often they were considered lower than the servants. They had no respect or authority but were expected to mold spoiled children into model citizens. Without the authority to do anything, their jobs were often doomed from the beginning. And for all their efforts, they received pitiful wages that barely helped. However, if one were truly to do a comparison, are teaching positions all that different now than they were in Anne's time? Teachers remain grossly underpaid, often have no authority for discipline and yet expected to mold students and help them reach their full potential. Parents either thwart their efforts at home or throw fits over certain punishments that a teacher's hands are tied. It appears that governesses and today's teachers still have much in common.Overall, I found Agnes Grey an enjoyable read. I know that Agnes bothered some of my fellow book club members, but I liked her. She had spunk and backbone and never once deviated from her beliefs. We should all be so strong in our convictions.
Clara53 on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
I read this book with more interest than I would have anticipated - written as it was by the youngest and least known of the three Bronte sisters. The heroine is appealing - with her goodness, her thoroughly honorable intentions, and idealistic views. There is a lot of "black and white" sort of thing (characters are either extremely virtuous or very evil), but this was Anne Bronte's first novel (first of the two, before she died still young), and had she lived, I am sure she would have matured much more as a writer. Her command of the language of the period is very good.
Lynn_Barker on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Agnes wants to prove herself and help her family by working as a governess. Her family try to dissuade her, thinking she is too young and not competent. Her first job is to teach two little uncooperative imps from the nether regions. The parents don't allow her to discipline the two, yet criticize her for not being able to control them. The only way she can get the little boy to pay attention to his lesson is to back him into a corner and not let him go until she gets a response. Meanwhile, he incites the little sister to throw Agnes' work bag in the fire, or toss her letters out the window. When the governess goes to rescue her possessions, the boy escapes his lessons after all. These are the first in a series of horrid children we meet in the novel. Agnes never loses her patience and feels quiet consistency and kindness will eventually win over her charges. Poor Anne was obviously writing from experience. I got a little irritated with the novel's heroine at times. She's a little too much of a victim, and constantly emphasizing the contrast between her employers' lack of character and her own moral superiority. Worthwhile reading.
sherdenise on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
I had a hard time with Ann Brontes writing style. An enjoyable story was mired down in too many words!
birdsam0610 on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Anne Bronte was the only one of the Bronte sisters I had not read so far. I loved Jane Eyre and enjoyed Wuthering Heights so I thought I should try Anne out (plus I could not resist the green Penguin Classic cover and the price of $4.50 Singapore dollars).The plot of Agnes Grey is quite simple ¿ Agnes lives at home and is somewhat forced to go out into the world to earn a living to support her family. She becomes a governess and is placed with an awful family. She returns home and then works again with another family (slightly less awful). There she meets a man who she loses, then finds again when she sets up a small school with her mother. The ending? I¿m sure you can guess!It is quite easy to read despite that it was written in 1847. The main themes are spoilt children (nothing different nowadays) and the support of family (Agnes¿ mother is a constant source of support). Agnes herself is a very moral character, somewhat serious and lacking in humour to me. She always believes she is making the right choice and the other party is wrong (as this story is told in the first person, it¿s hard to tell who really is right).This wasn¿t my favourite Bronte book (Jane Eyre wins hands down). Is The Tenant of Wildfell Hall any better?
melopher on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
I enjoyed Agnes Grey, although I found it to be more similar to Jane Eyre than to anything by Jane Austen. Agnes Grey was a simple tale of a girl who decides to be a governess. Despite being simple, it held my interest and was quite enjoyable. I found the character development and setting to be done very well. In fact, the characters were so realistic that I found myself thinking of it quite autobiographically...that in itself must speak some to the talent of the author. All in all, it was a pleasant foray into some lesser known 19th cent. British Literature.
SheReadsNovels on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Although I didn't think this book was as good as Anne Bronte's other novel, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, and it didn't have the feel of a must-read classic like Jane Eyre or Wuthering Heights, there was still a lot to like about Agnes Grey.The plot is simple, plain and linear. It's the story of a young woman in 19th century England who goes out to work as a governess when her family fall on hard times. Unfortunately Tom, Mary Ann and Fanny Bloomfield are three of the most badly-behaved children imaginable. When her short, unhappy time with the Bloomfields comes to an end, Agnes finds another situation with two older pupils, Rosalie and Matilda Murray. This second position is not much better than the first - the Murray girls are selfish and thoughtless and the only thing that makes Agnes's life bearable is her friendship with Mr Weston, the village curate.Agnes Grey has an autobiographical feel because Anne Bronte herself had worked as a governess and was able to draw on her own personal experiences to show how servants were often treated with cruelty and contempt by their employers. I could sympathise with Agnes as I would soon have lost my patience with the spoilt Bloomfield children and the self-centred, inconsiderate Murrays. I also thought it was unfair that the parents expected Agnes to control their children without actually giving her any real authority over them. It was such a difficult position to be in. However, I found it slightly disappointing that Agnes seemed prepared to just accept things the way they were and not do anything to change the situation. The book was more about tolerance and perseverance than about taking action to try to make things better.Another of the book's themes is the importance of morality, virtuousness and goodness, qualities in which the Bloomfield and Murray families seem to be sadly lacking, leading Agnes to feel isolated and miserable. However, I think many readers will find Agnes too self-righteous and superior, so if you prefer your heroines to be flawed and imperfect this probably isn't the book for you! Reading about the day to day life of a governess is not particularly exciting or dramatic, but I still found the book enjoyable and interesting - and at under 200 pages a very quick read compared to many of the other Bronte books.
unlikelyaristotle on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
A young woman's story as she starts her life as a governess for a wealthier family. What I love about Bronte books is that they all have a dark edge to them, you can imagine the dreariness and hardship the protagonists live through. Although it sounds slightly ominous, I love it because it shows readers some of the truth of lower or middle class living in England during that period.
Luli81 on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Not as good as "The Tenant of Wildfell Hall", but still worth reading.A classic Cinderella's, the gentle and patient governess turned into the princess by the love of a Parson.
archiveninja on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Most of the time I spent reading Agnes Grey I was wishing it was Jane Eyre. It's not.
dste on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
I enjoyed this book. It was a quick read, which can be really nice.The first part of the book read like a babysitter's worst nightmare; I could hardly believe that the kids could be that consistently stubborn. If I hadn't known that the book was based on Anne Bronte's own experiences, I would have said that part of the book was unrealistic.I enjoyed reading about Agnes' next job as a governess more. Although Rosalie was vain and conniving, I didn't mind her as much. I really liked the character of Mr. Weston, and as soon as he was introduced, I hoped that Agnes would fall for him.I liked Agnes as a character as well. It was very easy to imagine myself in her situation making a lot of the same choices, and that always adds an extra bit of interest for me.
StoutHearted on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
The least-studied Bronte throws her experiences as a governess into the ring and the result is a scathing tale of the upper classes and how they treat their middle class servants.The heroine Agnes Grey is a virtuous clergyman's daughter who, when her family finds themselves struggling, offers up her services as a governess. Her experiences are terrible: The children are unruly and unwilling to submit to authority, and the parents expect the kids to be tamed without discipline or harsh words. Agnes soon finds that governesses have an awkward place in their charges' families. They are treated like servants, yet expected to hold themselves in a manner better than such. Servants, in fact, seem to hold a resentment for a governess's place in their master's home. The governess then lives a lonely life, without confidantes, far from home. They are supposed to have no feelings, and to think only of their charges. When Agnes suffers a loss, her mistress is sulky that Agnes should take a short leave. She is ordered about with no concern of her own health or welfare, stuffed into uncomfortable carriage seats and forced to endure walks in uncomfortable weather and often finds herself sick.Agnes survives it all due to her sense of moral duty, which oftentimes borders on pride. She is afraid to admit failure to her family, who discouraged her from the work at first. Thus, she puts up with the cruelest of children in her first job as a governess, which she was woefully underprepared for. The second family she worked for was almost as bad. There, her primary charges were two young women: one a determined flirt, the other a foul-mouthed tomboy, neither of which felt obliged to be peacefully taught anything by a governess. The flirt, eldest daughter Rosalie, establishes a semblance of a friendship with Agnes, which consisted of Rosalie confiding in all the naughty things she did, and Agnes admonishing her. When Rosalie marries unhappily and is shut away in the country by her jealous husband, she calls on her old governess for conpanionship, but as usual does not listen to any of her advice. Thus, Rosalie becomes a self-sabotaging character: she is determined to always have things her way, even if her way makes things worse for her. In contrast, Agnes finds a most agreeable companion in the curate Mr. Weston. Both find comfort in religion and helping the less fortunate. Agnes falls in love almost immediately, but does not dare hope that marriage is in the cards for a woman of her class and position. As stoic and sensible as she tries to be, her mind belies an schoolgirl giddiness when she thinks of Mr. Weston. It is interesting that she and Rosalie take almost similar actions to cross his path: Rosalie wants to ensnare Mr. Weston's affections before her marriage to stroke her ego, so she visits the cottagers more in hopes to find him administering to parishoners there. Similarily, Agnes hopes to run into and hear about Mr. Weston as she visits the cottagers. The difference lies in their motives: Rosalie's intents are perverted because she disdains mens' feelings and only wants to be adored and have the satisfaction of turning down another proposal. Agnes's love is pure and based on admiration for Mr. Weston's moral character.The novel ends with happiness for those who deserve it -- very satisfactory for the reader. It is interesting to compare the novel to the "governess stories" of another Bronte, Charlotte, like "Jane Eyre" and "Villete", the latter being a closer comparison. In "Villette," Lucy Snowe is an isolated teacher who finds herself in a patronizing pseudo-friendship with one of her flirtatious and insulting charges. Like Agnes, Lucy makes a romantic connection with a likeminded sober and upstanding character. "Agnes Grey," however is a more damning account of the treatment of governesses. Few respectable jobs were open to educated women with no fortune to tempt men into marriage. Their minds and moral character set them apart, makin