What is direct and indirect speech | 'expression of time' in direct and indirect speech | important reporting verbs | pronoun change | tenses in direct and indirect speech | reporting verb with object | changing modal verbs | use of comma or colon | where to put reporting verb in direct speech | 'Questions' in direct and indirect speech | 'exclamations' in direct and indirect speech | 'imperatives' in direct and indirect speech | use of 'that' in indirect speech | SAMPLE THIS: What is Direct and Indirect Speech?-- There are two ways to express what someone else has said. On this basis, sentences are of two types: sentences with Direct Speech, and sentences with Indirect Speech | DIRECT SPEECH-- Direct Speech is also called Quoted Speech. Direct Speech refers exactly what someone has said. Direct Speech appears within quotation marks ("..."). A comma is used before starting the exact quote within the quotation marks. Direct Speech should be word for word. Example: President declared, "I will not bear corruption in the country at any cost." INDIRECT SPEECH-- Indirect speech is also called Reported Speech. Indirect Speech does not refer exactly what someone has said. Indirect Speech doesn't appear within quotation marks but the word "that" may be used as a conjunction between the reporting verb and reported speech. Indirect Speech shouldn't be word for word. Example: President declared that he would not bear corruption in the country at any cost. Important rules for changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech are as follows: 'Expression of Time' in Direct and Indirect Speech-- You need to change expression of time when changing direct speech (DS) into indirect speech (IDS) to match the moment of speaking. Important expressions of time in direct and indirect speech are as follows: 'now' is changed into 'then' | 'today' is changed into 'that day' | 'tomorrow' is changed into 'the next/following day' | 'yesterday' is changed into 'the day before' | 'these (days)' is changed into 'those (days)' | 'a month ago' is changed into 'a month before' | 'last weekend' is changed into 'the weekend before last' | 'last night' is changed into 'the night before' | 'a year ago' is changed into 'a year before' | 'next year' is changed into 'the following year' | 'this (morning/noon/evening)' is changed into 'that (morning/noon/evening)' | Besides expressions of time, there are many other expressions that need to be changed if you are changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech. 'come' is changed into 'go' | 'thus' is changed into 'so' | 'these' is changed into 'those' | 'hence' is changed into 'thence' | 'here' is changed into 'there'
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Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too. ManikJoshi.com is the personal website of the author.