This book has been written as a text for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students in the burgeoning field of study that has come to be called environment and behavior. It is appropriate for courses in environmental psychology, social ecology, ecological psychology, and community psychology when the community is conceptualized from an ecological viewpoint. In addition, the book may be used in design courses oriented toward an appreciation of the interaction between architecture and human behavior. The book presents a thorough explication of a perspective or viewpoint in approaching the study of environment and behavior, which has tended to be underemphasized in past work in this area. The dynamic perspective focuses on the active role people play in dealing with environmental challenges. Its investigative interest is in the processes that mediate the effects of environment on behavior, especially the positive and adaptive ways in which people cope with the environment. The accent is on the creative, complex, yet subtle character of these environmental processes.
Table of Contents
1 Emergence of a New Perspective.- The Human Dimension in Architecture.- In Search of New Knowledge.- Assessing the Impact of the Built Environment.- Institutional Settings.- The Urban Environment.- Microinterpersonal Behavior.- Crowding.- A Working Definition of Environmental Psychology.- Placing Perspective in Perspective.- A Dynamic Perspective.- Agenda for This Book.- References.- I Environmental Coping.- 2 Street Life and High-Rise Public Housing.- The Social Fabric of the Ghetto.- A Naturalistic Field Study.- Contrasting Housing Environments.- Behavior Mapping.- Outdoor Social Activity.- Reclaiming Social Space.- Using Outdoor Space.- Reclaiming Functional Space.- Some Implications for Urban Design.- Summary.- References.- 3 Social Coping and Environmental Satisfaction in a University Megadorm.- An Environmental Survey.- Survey Measures.- Social Competence.- Social Coping.- Environmental Satisfaction.- Survey Administration.- Dissatisfaction in the Megadorm.- Satisfaction and Social Competence.- Coping and Social Competence.- Coping and Satisfaction.- Applying the Survey Findings.- Summary.- References.- 4 Coping with Environmental Change: A Social Systems Model.- Ward Remodeling.- Evaluating the Effects of Change.- Increased Social Activity.- A Social Systems Model of Coping.- Petrification.- Unfreezing.- Resistance.- Personalization.- Environmental Competence.- Reinterpreting Resistance.- Summary.- References.- II Social Accommodation.- 5 Social Isolation and Seating Patterns in an Experimental Hospital Dayroom.- An Investigation in an Experimental Dayroom.- Experimental Measures.- Diminished Social Interaction.- Hypothesized Effects.- Free Setting.- Loss of Self-Direction.- Further Social Impacts.- Verbal Interaction.- Conversation.- More Subtle Effects.- Unobtrusive Measures.- Lack of Awareness.- Some Design Implications.- Summary.- References.- 6 Invasion of Privacy and Self-Disclosure in a Counseling Setting.- What We Know about Self-Disclosure.- A Laboratory Analogue.- Interviewing Students.- Interview and Postsession Tests.- Confederate.- Measuring Self-Disclosure.- Social Accommodation: A Reduction of Self-Disclosure..- A Complex Picture of Accommodation.- Lack of Awareness.- Why the Dividers Failed.- Coping and Accommodation by the Interviewers.- Some Implications for Counseling.- Summary.- References.- 7 The Unresponsive Urbanite: Personal versus Situational Determinants.- A Survey Study.- Helping Scale.- Settings.- Requests.- Additional Measures.- Urban-Rural Effects on Altruism.- Main Effects.- Interactions.- Urban Fear.- Social Accommodation in the City.- Interactional Complexity.- The Toll of Fear.- Underplaying Overload.- A Note of Caution.- Summary.- References.- III Environmental Schematization.- 8 Sex Differences in Schematizing the Behavioral Environment.- A Study of Environmental Schematization.- Measures of Schematization.- Sex Differences in Personalization.- Childhood Environment.- Present Environment.- Sex Differences in Social Emphasis.- Childhood Environment.- Present Environment.- Some Speculation on Sex Differences in Environmental Schematization.- Summary.- References.- 9 Errors in Cognitive Mapping: A Behavioral Interpretation.- Designing an Interactional Study.- Mapping and Behavioral Measures.- Cognitive Maps.- Personal Behavior.- Collective Behavior.- Scoring the Cognitive Maps.- Spatial Zones Based on Map Borders.- Spatial Zones Based on Frequency of Spatial Features.- Relating Campus Behavior to the Map Zones.- Collective Behavior.- Personal Behavior.- Personal Behavior and Cognitive Distortions.- Size Exaggeration.- Centrifugal Distortion.- Reinterpreting Mapping Errors.- Implications for Urban Mapping.- Summary.- References.- IV Synthesis.- 10 Implications for the Field of Environment and Behavior.- Summing Up Where We Have Been.- Coping with Environmental Challenges.- Subtle Accommodations to Environmental Constraint.- Uniquely Personal Environmental Schemata.- Derived Postulates.- Implications for the Study of Environment and Behavior.- Theoretical Development.- Research Strategy.- Application: Toward a Socially Relevant Environmental Psychology.- References.- Author Index.