The turmoil and brutality of the twentieth century have made it increasingly difficult to maintain faith in the ability of reason to fashion a stable and peaceful world. After the ravages of global conflict and a Cold War that divided the world's loyalties, how are we to master our doubts and face the twenty-first century with hope?
In Return to Reason, Stephen Toulmin argues that the potential for reason to improve our lives has been hampered by a serious imbalance in our pursuit of knowledge. The centuries-old dominance of rationality, a mathematical mode of reasoning modeled on theory and universal certainties, has diminished the value of reasonableness, a system of humane judgments based on personal experience and practice. To this day, academic disciplines such as economics and professions such as law and medicine often value expert knowledge and abstract models above the testimony of diverse cultures and the practical experience of individuals.
Now, at the beginning of a new century, Toulmin sums up a lifetime of distinguished work and issues a powerful call to redress the balance between rationality and reasonableness. His vision does not reject the valuable fruits of science and technology, but requires awareness of the human consequences of our discoveries. Toulmin argues for the need to confront the challenge of an uncertain and unpredictable world, not with inflexible ideologies and abstract theories, but by returning to a more humane and compassionate form of reason, one that accepts the diversity and complexity that is human nature as an essential beginning for all intellectual inquiry.
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About the Author
Stephen Toulmin was University Professor and Henry R. Luce Professor, Emeritus, at the University of Southern California and author of, among other books, Cosmopolis and The Uses of Argument.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction: Rationality and Certainty
2 How Reason Lost Its Balance
3 The Invention of Disciplines
4 Economics, or the Physics That Never Was
5 The Dreams of Rationalism
6 Rethinking Method
7 Practical Reason and the Clinical Arts
8 Ethical Theory and Moral Practice
9 The Trouble with Disciplines
10 Redressing the Balance
11 The Varieties of Experience
12 The World of Where and When
13 Postscript: Living with Uncertainty
What People are Saying About This
In an elegant and wide-ranging investigation through history and philosophy, Stephen Toulmin challenges the wide-spread, modern misapplications of scientific "rationality" beyond its proper bounds. He shows how the parallel recourse to "reasonableness," properly re-instituted, can help us master real-life tasks, with both cool heads and warm hearts.
Gerald Holton, author of Einstein, History, and Other Passions: The Rebellion Against Science at the End of the Twentieth Century
In Return to Reason, Stephen Toulmin sums up a lifetime's work in rescuing the reasonableness of ordinary practices from the oblivion to which they are consigned when we equate reason with abstract theory alone. From the knack of a wordless skill, to the work of really good professionals, he shows us how situated practice is central in real life. His critique applies to Modernism and Postmodernism alike and offers a true guide to those of us perplexed by the theoretical idols of the day.
Robert N. Bellah, co-author of Habits of the Heart and The Good Society
Stephen Toulmin speaks eloquently for the genius of ordinary life. Like Montaigne and Wittgenstein, he favors thinking that is practical and particular, not vacuous and formal. His book is an antidote and a warning: it is thoughtful, perceptive engagement, not theory, that allays personal and social problems. Human sciences describe our circumstances; they cannot prescribe solutions. Ideologists will resist. Dewey would cheer.
David Weissman, author of Truth's Debt to Value