Crusade and Christendom: Annotated Documents in Translation from Innocent III to the Fall of Acre, 1187-1291

Crusade and Christendom: Annotated Documents in Translation from Innocent III to the Fall of Acre, 1187-1291

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Overview

Crusade and Christendom: Annotated Documents in Translation from Innocent III to the Fall of Acre, 1187-1291 by Jessalynn Bird

In 1213, Pope Innocent III issued his letter Vineam Domini, thundering against the enemies of Christendom—the "beasts of many kinds that are attempting to destroy the vineyard of the Lord of Sabaoth"—and announcing a General Council of the Latin Church as redress. The Fourth Lateran Council, which convened in 1215, was unprecedented in its scope and impact, and it called for the Fifth Crusade as what its participants hoped would be the final defense of Christendom. For the first time, a collection of extensively annotated and translated documents illustrates the transformation of the crusade movement.

Crusade and Christendom explores the way in which the crusade was used to define and extend the intellectual, religious, and political boundaries of Latin Christendom. It also illustrates how the very concept of the crusade was shaped by the urge to define and reform communities of practice and belief within Latin Christendom and by Latin Christendom's relationship with other communities, including dissenting political powers and heretical groups, the Moors in Spain, the Mongols, and eastern Christians. The relationship of the crusade to reform and missionary movements is also explored, as is its impact on individual lives and devotion. The selection of documents and bibliography incorporates and brings to life recent developments in crusade scholarship concerning military logistics and travel in the medieval period, popular and elite participation, the role of women, liturgy and preaching, and the impact of the crusade on western society and its relationship with other cultures and religions.

Intended for the undergraduate yet also invaluable for teachers and scholars, this book illustrates how the crusades became crucial for defining and promoting the very concept and boundaries of Latin Christendom. It provides translations of and commentaries on key original sources and up-to-date bibliographic materials.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780812223132
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press, Inc.
Publication date: 07/08/2014
Series: The Middle Ages Series
Pages: 536
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 8.80(h) x 1.50(d)

About the Author

Jessalynn Bird is an independent scholar. Edward Peters is Henry Charles Lea Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Pennsylvania. His many books include The First Crusade and Torture, which are also available from the University of Pennsylvania Press. James M. Powell was Professor Emeritus of Medieval History at Syracuse University, and author of the prize-winning Anatomy of a Crusade, 1213-1221 and Albertanus of Brescia: The Pursuit of Happiness in the Early Thirteenth Century, also available from the University of Pennsylvania Press.

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Editors' Note

In 1971 Edward Peters published Christian Society and the Crusades, 1198-1229, a modest volume of historical documents in English translation intended to make available to students a number of widely scattered source materials and a brief survey of scholarship to date, dealing with the crusade movements of a particularly important period in both crusade and wider European history. The volume drew heavily on the distinguished and pioneering series Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History, originally under the aegis of Dana C. Munro, the founder of crusade history in the United States. In the decades since the original publication, the amount of translated source materials and new scholarship has grown enormously, and perspectives on both the thirteenth-century crusades and the character of Christendom in the period have greatly changed. Two excellent and wide-ranging collections of scholarly articles that represent many aspects of the most recent scholarship are Andrew Jotischky, ed., The Crusades, vols. 3 and 4, Critical Concepts in Historical Studies (London, 2008), and Thomas F. Madden, James L. Naus, and Vincent Ryan, eds., Crusades—Medieval Worlds in Conflict (Farnham UK-Burlington VT, 2010).

In February 1991, James M. Powell, whose own 1986 study The Anatomy of a Crusade was a major part of the new scholarship, asked Peters if he planned to revise Christian Society. Peters decided that he would, since much of the more recent material is also often widely scattered and many important texts remained untranslated, but would Jim collaborate? Powell graciously agreed. In 2001 our friend Jessalynn Bird, a young American scholar of the period, completed her D.Phil. thesis at Oxford on James of Vitry and the School of Peter the Chanter, and it seemed logical to invite Bird, whose work then and since substantially complements that of Powell and others, to collaborate with us on the revision. She has done heroic work—many of the newly translated documents of the thirteenth century have been hers.

It has taken more than a decade to assemble the new version, and in the course of that decade the project became an entirely new book with much of a heavily revised older book inside it. The period has been redated to 1198-1291 (with one important item dating from 1187), from the beginning of the pontificate of Innocent III (1198-1216) to the fall of Acre (1291). The number of texts in translation and the range of topics addressed have greatly increased. It is no longer a revision or even a second edition. We have retained most of the translations in the earlier volume, but have reduced the number of texts on the Fourth Crusade by Munro and, in the case of the chronicle of the Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) of Oliver of Paderborn, originally translated and independently published by Joseph J. Gavigan and the University of Pennsylvania Press, have revised the text and scholarly apparatus.

Because of the scope and length of the book, we have not been able to cite scholarly literature in languages other than English, except in a very few cases. But we have attempted to indicate the locations of printed English translations of both the texts we have included and other related texts from the late twelfth to the end of the late thirteenth centuries.

Table of Contents

Editors' Note
Maps
1. The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the Thirteenth Century
2. Areas of the Albigensian Crusade in Southern France
3. The Fourth Crusade's Route to Constantinople
4. The Damietta Region of Egypt
5. Progress of the Reconquista in Iberia
6. The Mediterranean Region
Note on Abbreviations and Translation

Introduction: Crusade and Christendom, 1187-1291
1. Gregory VIII, Audita tremendi, 1187

PART I. THE POPE, CRUSADES, AND COMMUNITIES, 1198-1213
2. Innocent III, Post miserabile, 1198
3. Innocent III, Multe nobis attulit, 1199
4. The Lambrecht Rite for Taking the Cross, ca. 1200
5. Innocent III's Response to the Questions of Hubert Walter, 1200-1201
6. Facets of the Fourth Crusade, 1202-1204
7. The Albigensian Crusade, 1209-1229
8. Roman Intercessory Processions, 1212
9. The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, 1212
10. The Children's Crusade, 1212-1213

PART II. CRUSADE AND COUNCIL, 1213-1215
11. Innocent III, Quia maior, 1213
12. Innocent III, Pium et sanctum, 1213
13. An Anonymous Crusade-Recruiting Sermon, ca. 1213-1217
14. Innocent III's Response to the Questions of Conrad of Speyer, Quod iuxta verbum, 1213
15. Roger Wendover on the Fourth Lateran Council, 1215
16. The Fourth Lateran Council, Canon 71, Ad liberandam, 1215

PART III. THE FIFTH CRUSADE, 1213-1221
17. Roger Wendover on Signs and Portents, 1217
18. Letters of Gervase of Prémontré, 1216-1217
19. James of Vitry's Sermon to Pilgrims, 1229-1240
20. The Rhineland Crusaders, 1220
21. Oliver of Paderborn, The Capture of Damietta, ca. 1217-1222
22. Roger Wendover, Three Letters from the East, 1221-1222
23. Two Recruiters in Marseilles, 1224
24. Ibn Wasil on the Frankish Surrender, ca. 1282

PART IV. THE EMPEROR'S CRUSADE, 1227-1229
25. Roger Wendover on the Crusade of Frederick II, ca. 1230
26. Philip of Novara on the Crusade of Frederick II, ca. 1230
27. Frederick II, Letter to Henry III of England, 1229
28. Ibn Wasil (ca. 1282) and Ibn al-Jauzi (ca. 1250) on the Loss of Jerusalem
29. The Letter of Gerold on Antichrist, ca. 1230

PART V. THE BARONS' CRUSADE, 1234-1245
30. Gregory IX, Rachel suum videns, 1234
31. Gregory IX to the Mendicant Orders, Pium et sanctum,1234
32. Matthew Paris on Mendicant Preaching, 1234-1236
33. Lyrics of Thibaut IV of Champagne, ca. 1234-1239
34. Gregory IX to Frederick II, Considerantes olim, 1238
35. Matthew Paris: Richard of Cornwall on Crusade, 1245
36. Matthew Paris on Crusade Financing, 1241
37. Matthew Paris: The Sack of Jerusalem, 1244
38. The First Council of Lyons, 1245

PART VI. THE MONGOL CRUSADES, 1241-1262
39. Henry of Saxony to the Duke of Brabant, 1241
40. Frederick II to the Christian Princes, 1241
41. Gregory IX to King Bela of Hungary, Vocem in excelso, 1241
42. Gregory IX to the Abbot of Heiligenkreuz, Vocem in excelso, 1241
43. Continuatio Sancrucensis, 1234-1266
44. A Thirteenth-Century English Liturgical Response to the Mongol Threat
45. Matthew Paris on Archbishop Peter and the Mongol Threat, 1244
46. The First Council of Lyons, 1245
47. The Master of the Temple to the Preceptor of Templar Houses in England, 1261
48. Alexander IV on the Tartar Threat, Clamat in auribus, 1261
49. Letter from Hülagü, Il-Khan of Persia, to Louis IX, 1262

PART VII. THE SAINT'S CRUSADES, 1248-1270
50. Jean de Joinville's Preparations for Departure on Crusade, 1248
51. John Sarrasin's Letter on the Capture of Damietta, 1249
52. Ibn Wasil (ca. 1282) and al-Makrisi (ca. 1440) on Louis's Defeat
53. Louis's Letter to the People of France, 1250
54. The Pastoureaux, 1251
55. The Register of Eudes Rigaud, 1260-1269
56. Rutebeuf, "Lament of the Holy Land," ca. 1266

PART VIII. THE ITALIAN CRUSADES, 1241-1268
57. Gregory IX to John of Civitella, Cum tibi duxerimus, 1241
58. Matthew Paris on Staufer Italy, 1245-1269
59. Urban IV to Louis IX on Manfred, Ecce fili carissime, 1264
60. Salimbene of Parma on Staufer Italy, ca. 1285
61. The Chronicle of Pedro III of Aragon (r. 1283-1288

PART IX. LIVING AND DYING ON CRUSADE
62. Ticket-Scalping on a Crusade Ship, 1248
63. Contract of Crusade Service, 1270
64. Lawsuit for Breach of Contract, 1250
65. Traveling in Style and at Risk, 1216-1217
66. The Last Will and Testament of Barzella Merxadrus, 1219
67. The Codicil of Count Henry of Rodez, 1222
68. The Archbishop of York on Ignoble Pilgrims, 1275

PART X. THE ROAD TO ACRE, 1265-1291
69. Gilbert of Tournai on Reform and Crusade, ca. 1272-1274
70. Humbert of Romans, Opusculum tripartitum, ca. 1272-1274
71. Gregory X and the Second Council of Lyons, 1274
72. The Templar of Tyre on the Fall of Acre, 1291
73. Abu l-Fida' and Abu l-Mahasin on the Fall of Acre, 1291

Index
Acknowledgments

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