Philosophy 100 Essential Thinkers

Philosophy 100 Essential Thinkers

by Philip Stokes

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Overview

Philosophy 100 Essential Thinkers by Philip Stokes

Who am I? What is justice? What does it mean to live a good life? Many of the fundamental questions of philosophy are questions that we begin to ask ourselves as young adults when we look at the world around us, at ourselves, and try to make sense of things. This engaging and accessible book invites the reader to explore the questions and arguments of philosophy through the work of one hundred of the greatest thinkers within the Western intellectual tradition.
Covering philosophical, scientific, political and religious thought over a period of 2500 years, Philosophy will serve as an excellent guide for those interested in knowing about individual thinkers-such as Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau and Nietzsche, to name just a few-and the questions and observations that inspired them to write. By presenting individual thinkers, details of their lives and the concerns and circumstances that motivated them, this book makes philosophy come to life as a relevant and meaningful approach to thinking about the contemporary world. A lucid and engaging book full of thought-provoking quotations, as well as clear explanations and definitions, Philosophy is sure to encourage students and laymen alike to investigate further.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781784284145
Publisher: Arcturus Publishing Limited
Publication date: 03/15/2017
Pages: 208
Sales rank: 498,560
Product dimensions: 8.20(w) x 11.50(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Philip Stokes has a Masters degree in Philosophy from Bristol University. After several years in academic publishing, Philip returned to academia proper and now teaches at Chulalongkom University in Thailand, where he is a member of the Language Faculty.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

The Presocratics

Thales of Miletus . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Pythagoras of Samos . . . . . 10

Xenophanes of Colophon 12

Heraclitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

The Eleatics

Parmenides of Elea . . . . . . . 16

Zeno of Elea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

The Academics

Socrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Plato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Aristotle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

The Atomists

Democritus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Epicurus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

The Cynics

Diogenes of Sinope . . . . . . . 30

The Stoics

Marcus Tullius Cicero . . . . 32

Philo of Alexandria . . . . . . . 34

Lucius Annaeus Seneca . . 36

Marcus Aurelius . . . . . . . . . . . 38

The Sceptics

Sextus Empiricus . . . . . . . . . . 40

The Neoplatonists

Plotinus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

The Christians

St Augustine of Hippo . . . 44

Boethius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

The Scholastics

St Anselm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

St Thomas Aquinas . . . . . . . 50

John Duns Scotus . . . . . . . . . 52

William of Occam . . . . . . . . . 54

The Age of Science

Nicolaus Copernicus . . . . . . 56

Niccolò Machiavelli . . . . . . . 58

Desiderus Erasmus . . . . . . . . 60

Thomas More . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Francis Bacon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Galileo Galilei . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Thomas Hobbes . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Sir Isaac Newton . . . . . . . . . . 70

The Rationalists

René Descartes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Antoine Arnauld . . . . . . . . . . 74

Nicolas Malebranche . . . . . 76

Benedict de Spinoza . . . . . . 78

Gottfried von Leibniz . . . . . 80

The Empiricists

John Locke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

David Hume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Thomas Reid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Voltaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Jean-Jacques Rousseau . . 90

Denis Diderot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

The Idealists

George Berkeley . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Immanuel Kant . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

Johann Schiller . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Frederick Schelling . . . . . . 100

Georg Hegel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

Arthur Schopenhauer . . . 104

The Liberals

Adam Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Mary Wollstonecraft . . . . 108

Thomas Paine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Jeremy Bentham . . . . . . . . . 112

John Stuart Mill . . . . . . . . . . 114

Auguste Comte . . . . . . . . . . . 116

The Evolutionists

Charles Darwin . . . . . . . . . . . 118

Henri Louis Bergson . . . . 120

A.N. Whitehead . . . . . . . . . . 122

The Pragmatists

Ernst Mach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

Charles Peirce . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

William James . . . . . . . . . . . 128

John Dewey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

The Materialists

Karl Marx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Friedrich Engels . . . . . . . . . . 134

Vladimir Lenin . . . . . . . . . . . 136

Sigmund Freud . . . . . . . . . . . 138

Carl Jung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

John Maynard Keynes . . 142

The Existentialists

Søren Kierkegaard . . . . . . . 144

Friedrich Nietzsche . . . . . . 146

Edmund Husserl . . . . . . . . . 148

Martin Heidegger . . . . . . . . 150

Jean-Paul Sartre . . . . . . . . . 152

Albert Camus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

Simone de Beauvoir . . . . . 156

The Linguistic Turn

Gottlob Frege . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Bertrand Russell . . . . . . . . . 160

Ludwig Wittgenstein . . . . 162

Ferdinand de Saussure . . 164

George Edward Moore . . 166

Moritz Schlick . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

Lev Vygotsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

Rudolph Carnap . . . . . . . . . . 172

A.J. Ayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

Alfred Tarski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

J. L. Austin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

Gilbert Ryle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

Noam Chomsky . . . . . . . . . . 182

The Postmodernists

Claude Levi-Strauss . . . . . 184

Michel Foucault . . . . . . . . . . 186

Jacques Derrida . . . . . . . . . . 188

The New Scientists

Emile Durkheim . . . . . . . . . . 190

Albert Einstein . . . . . . . . . . . 192

Karl Popper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Kurt Gödel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

Alan Turing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

B.F. Skinner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

Thomas Kuhn . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Paul Feyerabend . . . . . . . . . 204

W.V.O. Quine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

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