This book draws upon the latest research to identify, explain, and illustrate the standards used by the Roman armies of the Late Empire.
The Late Roman Empire was a period of significant change in the designs of standards and in the costumes of standard-bearers. During the middle decades of the chaotic 3rd century, evidence confirms the continued use of the old legionary eagle and the signa of the old cohorts and centuries, alongside flags and Imperial images. The two major trends over the later generations were the adoption of Christian symbols on standards (e.g. Constantine the Great's Chi-Rho), and the proliferation of different types of flags. This had begun in the late 2nd century with the adoption of the “barbarian” dragon standard, the windsock-shaped draco, which continued to be displayed, alongside various other flags in the Greek-speaking Eastern Empire, whose influence increased greatly. Meanwhile, the growing employment of foreign units was such that by the 5th century we have evidence of the use of Hunnic symbolism among a Roman general's suite of standards. The costumes of standard-bearers also evolved as “Persian” styles spread from Constantinople.
This title explores all these changes in depth, charting the development of various costumes and designs and the waxing and waning influence of various cultures and religious considerations. The text is supported by specially commissioned illustrations and artist's reconstructions of the standards and their bearers.
About the Author
Raffaele D'Amato, PhD, is the author of some 40 books and numerous articles on the military of Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, Byzantium and the Middle Ages. For two years he taught at Fatih University, Istanbul as a visiting professor. He currently works as a lawyer and as an external researcher for the Laboratory of the Danubian Provinces at the University of Ferrara, Italy which is part of the Scientific Committee.
Andrey Negin was born in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, and graduated from Nizhny Novgorod State University. There, he is candidate of historical sciences (PhD), and a member of the department of history of the Ancient World and Classical Languages. His current area of study is ancient Roman armour, specifically researching Roman parade and ceremonial armour. All of these themes are reflected in his publications on the pages of Russian and foreign archaeological publications, including the monographs: The Roman legions in battle (co-author A. V. Mahlayuk) and Roman ceremonial and tournament armament. He lives in Russia.
Table of Contents
Introduction * Organization * Legionary standards: the eagle – the vexillum – the labarum – the imago * Standards of the cohors and centuria * The draco – the flamoulon – the bandon * Standards of the auxilia * Cavalry standards * Imperial Guard standards * Signa Militaria and Signa Imperia – the Imperial standard andHasta Summa Imperii * Holy standards of the Empire * The standard-bearer's career – uniform and equipment – military decorations * The chapel of the standards * Employment of standards on the battlefield * Select Bibliography
* (throughout) Plate Commentaries