The Grammar of Science

The Grammar of Science

by Karl Pearson

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780343038182
Publisher: Franklin Classics
Publication date: 10/14/2018
Pages: 420
Product dimensions: 6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x 0.86(d)

Table of Contents

Introductioniii
Prefacesix
Chapter I.Introductory
1.The Need of the Present1
2.Science and Citizenship6
3.The First Claim of Modern Science8
4.Essentials of Good Science9
5.The Scope of Science12
6.Science and Metaphysics14
7.The Ignorance of Science19
8.The Wide Domain of Science24
9.The Second Claim of Science25
10.The Third Claim of Science29
11.Science and the Imagination30
12.The Method of Science Illustrated32
13.Science and the Aesthetic Judgment34
14.The Fourth Claim of Science36
Chapter II.The Facts of Science
1.The Reality of Things39
2.Sense-Impressions and Consciousness42
3.The Brain as a Central Telephone Exchange44
4.The Nature of Thought46
5.Other-Consciousness as an Eject48
6.Attitude of Science towards Ejects51
7.The Scientific Validity of a Conception53
8.The Scientific Validity of an Inference55
9.The Limits to Other-Consciousness57
10.The Canons of Legitimate Inference59
11.The External Universe60
12.Outside and Inside Myself63
13.Sensations as the Ultimate Source of the Materials of Knowledge66
14.Shadow and Reality69
15.Individuality71
16.The Futility of "Things-in-Themselves"72
17.The Term Knowledge is Meaningless if applied to Unthinkable Things74
Chapter III.The Scientific Law
1.Resume and Foreword77
2.Of the Word Law and its Meanings79
3.Natural Law relative to Man82
4.Man as the Maker of Natural Law85
5.The Two Senses of the Words "Natural Law"87
6.Confusion between the Two Senses of Natural Law88
7.The Reason behind Nature90
8.True Relation of Civil and Natural Law93
9.Physical and Metaphysical Supersensuousness95
10.Progress in the Formulating of Natural Law96
11.The Universality of Scientific Law100
12.The Routine of Perceptions is possibly a Product of the Perceptive Faculty101
13.The Mind as a Sorting-Machine106
14.Science, Natural Theology, and Metaphysics107
15.Conclusions109
Chapter IV.Cause and Effect--Probability
1.Mechanism113
2.Force as a Cause116
3.Will as a Cause118
4.Secondary Causes involve no Enforcement120
5.Is Will a First Cause?122
6.Will as a Secondary Cause123
7.First Causes have no Existence for Science127
8.Cause and Effect as the Routine of Experience128
9.Width of the Term Cause131
10.The Universe of Sense-Impressions as a Universe of Motions132
11.Necessity belongs to the World of Conceptions, not to that of Perceptions134
12.Routine in Perception is a necessary Condition of Knowledge136
13.Probable and Provable139
14.Probability as to Breaches in the Routine of Perceptions142
15.The Basis of Laplace's Theory lies in an Experience as to Ignorance143
16.Nature of Laplace's Investigation147
17.The Permanency of Routine for the Future148
Chapter V.Contingency and Correlation--the Insufficiency of Causation
1.The Routine of Perceptions is Relative rather than Absolute152
2.The Ultimate Elements of the Inorganic as of the Organic Universe may be Individual and not Same155
3.The Category of Association, as replacing Causation156
4.Symbolic Measure of the Intensity of Association or Contingency160
5.The Universe as governed by Causation and as governed by Contingency165
6.Classification of A and B by Measurement. Mathematical Function167
7.On the Multiplicity of "Causes"171
8.The Universe as a Complex of Contingent, not Causally Linked Phenomena173
9.The Measure of Correlation and its Relation to Contingency174
Chapter VI.Space and Time
1.Space as a Mode of Perception179
2.The Infinite Bigness of Space184
3.The Infinite Divisibility of Space186
4.The Space of Memory and Thought189
5.Conceptions and Perceptions191
6.Sameness and Continuity194
7.Conceptual Space. Geometrical Boundaries197
8.Surfaces as Boundaries199
9.Conceptual Discontinuity of Bodies. The Atom201
10.Conceptual Continuity. Ether205
11.On the General Nature of Scientific Conceptions206
12.Time as a Mode of Perception208
13.Conceptual Time and its Measurement213
14.Concluding Remarks on Space and Time217
Chapter VII.The Geometry of Motion
1.Motion as the Mixed Mode of Perception220
2.Conceptual Analysis of a Case of Perceptual Motion. Point-Motion222
3.Rigid Bodies as Geometrical Ideals225
4.On Change of Aspect, or Rotation227
5.On Change of Form, or Strain229
6.Factors of Conceptual Motion232
7.Point-Motion. Relative Character of Position and Motion233
8.Position. The Map of the Path236
9.The Time-Chart239
10.Steepness and Slope242
11.Speed as a Slope. Velocity244
12.The Velocity Diagram or Hodograph. Acceleration246
13.Acceleration as a Spurt and a Shunt249
14.Curvature251
15.The Relation between Curvature and Normal Acceleration255
16.Fundamental Propositions in the Geometry of Motion258
17.The Relativity of Motion. Its Synthesis from Simple Components260
Chapter VIII.Matter
1."All things move"--but only in Conception266
2.The Three Problems269
3.How the Physicists define Matter271
4.Does Matter occupy Space?275
5.The "Common-sense" View of Matter as Impenetrable and Hard279
6.Individuality does not denote Sameness in Substratum281
7.Hardness not Characteristic of Matter285
8.Matter as non-Matter in Motion286
9.The Ether as "Perfect Fluid" and "Perfect Jelly"289
10.The Vortex-Ring Atom and the Ether-Squirt Atom292
11.A Material Loophole into the Supersensuous294
12.The Difficulties of a Perceptual Ether297
13.Why do Bodies move?299
Chapter IX.The Laws of Motion
1.Corpuscles and their Structure305
2.The Limits to Mechanism309
3.The First Law of Motion311
4.The Second Law of Motion, or the Principle of Inertia313
5.The Third Law of Motion. Mutual Acceleration is determined by Relative Position317
6.Velocity as an Epitome of Past History. Mechanism and Materialism322
7.The Fourth Law of Motion326
8.The Scientific Conception of Mass329
9.The Fifth Law of Motion. The Definition of Force330
10.Equality of Masses tested by Weighing333
11.How far does the Mechanism of the Fourth and Fifth Laws of Motion extend?337
12.Density as the Basis of the Kinetic Scale339
13.The Influence of Aspect on the Corpuscular Dance343
14.The Hypothesis of Modified Action and the Synthesis of Motion344
15.Criticism of the Newtonian Laws of Motion348
Chapter X.Modern Physical Ideas
1.The Present Crisis in Physical Science and its Sources355
2.The Origin of the Atomic View of Electricity358
3.On the Electro-magnetic Constitution of the Atom361
4.Electro-magnetic Mass364
5.A Mechanical Ether Irrational367
6.On Current Definitions of Electric Charge and Intensity at a Point370
7.The Possibility of a Logical Definition of the Fundamental Quantities of the Electron Theory371
8.On Fluid or Space Distribution of Electricity374
9.On Motion Relative to the Ether in Relation to Experience377
10.Theory of Relativity379
11.Electro-magnetic Inertia according to the Theory of Relativity383
12.The Present Value of Newtonian Dynamics385
Appendix
Note IOn the Principle of Inertia and "Absolute Rotation"389
Note IIOn Newton's Third Law of Motion392
Note IIIWilliam of Occam's Razor392
Note IVA. R. Wallace on Matter393
Note VOn the Reversibility of Natural Processes394

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