Written in 1939 and unpublished until 2000, Sebastian Haffner's memoir of the rise of Nazism in Germany offers a unique portrait of the lives of ordinary German citizens between the wars. Covering 1907 to 1933, his eyewitness account provides a portrait of a country in constant flux: from the rise of the First Corps, the right-wing voluntary military force set up in 1918 to suppress Communism and precursor to the Nazi storm troopers, to the Hitler Youth movement; from the apocalyptic year of 1923 when inflation crippled the country to Hitler's rise to power. This fascinating personal history elucidates how the average German grappled with a rapidly changing society, while chronicling day-to-day changes in attitudes, beliefs, politics, and prejudices.
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About the Author
Sebastian Haffner was born in Berlin in 1907, and died in 1999. In 1938, he was forced to flee to Britain, where he worked as a journalist. In 1954, he returned to Germany and became a distinguished historian and commentator.
Oliver Pretzel, Sebastian Haffner's son, is the translator of this work.
Read an Excerpt
By Sebastian Haffner
Translated by Oliver Pretzel
FARRAR, STRAUS AND GIROUX
Copyright © 2000 Sarah Haffner and Oliver Pretzel.
Translation copyright © 2002 Oliver Pretzel.
All rights reserved.
This is the story of a duel.
It is a duel between two very unequal adversaries: an exceedingly powerful, formidable, and ruthless state and an insignificant, unknown private individual. The duel does not take place in what is commonly known as the sphere of politics; the individual is by no means a politician, still less a conspirator or an enemy of the state. Throughout, he finds himself very much on the defensive. He only wishes to preserve what he considers his integrity, his private life, and his personal honor. These are under constant attack by the government of the country he lives in, and by the most brutal, but often also clumsy, means.
With fearful menace the state demands that the individual give up his friends, abandon his lovers, renounce his beliefs and assume new, prescribed ones. He must use a new form of greeting, eat and drink in ways he does not fancy, employ his leisure in occupations he abhors, make himself available for activities he despises, and deny his past and his individuality. For all this, he must constantly express extreme enthusiasm and gratitude.
The individual is opposed to all of that, but he is ill prepared for the onslaught. He was not born a hero, still less a martyr. He is just an ordinary man with many weaknesses, having grown up in vulnerable rimes. He is nevertheless stubbornly antagonistic. So he enters into the duetwithout enthusiasm, shrugging his shoulders, but with a quiet determination not to yield. He is, of course, much weaker than his opponent, but rather more agile. You will see him duck and weave, dodge his foe and dart back, evading crushing blows by a whisker. You will have to admit that, for someone who is neither a hero nor a martyr, he manages to put up a good fight. Finally, however, you will see him compelled to abandon the struggle or, if you will, transfer it to another plane.
The state is the German Reich and I am the individual. Our fight may be interesting to watch, like any fight (indeed I hope it will be), but I am not recounting it just for entertainment. There is another purpose, closer to my heart.
My private duel with the Third Reich is not an isolated encounter. Thousands, maybe hundreds of thousands of such duels, in which an individual tries to defend his integrity and his personal honor against a formidably hostile state, have been fought in Germany during the last six years. Each is waged in total isolation and our of public view. Many of the duelists, greater heroes or martyrs by nature, have taken the fight further than Ias far as the concentration camp or the gallowsand may perhaps be honored by a future monument. Others were defeated much earlier and are now silent grumblers in the ranks of SA reservists or NSV Blockwarts (block wardens).
One might well consider my case as typical. From it, you can easily judge the chances for mankind in Germany today. You will see that they are pretty slim. They need not have been quite so hopeless if the outside world had intervened. It is still in the world's interest, I believe, for these chances to be improved. It is too late to avoid a war, but it might shorten the war by a year or two. Those Germans of goodwill who are fighting to defend their private peace and their private liberty are fighting, without knowing it, for the peace and liberty of the whole world.
Thus it still seems worthwhile to me to draw the attention of the world to the unknown events inside Germany.
The book will tell a story, not preach a sermon; but it has a moral that, like that "other and greater theme" in Elgar's Enigma Variations, silently "runs through and over the whole." I will not mind if, after reading the book, you forget all the adventures and incidents that I recount; but I would be pleased if you did not forget the underlying moral.
Even before the totalitarian state advanced on me with threats and challenges and taught me what it meant to experience history in person, I had already lived through a fair number of "historical events." All Europeans of the present generation can make that claim, and none more so than the Germans.
Those events have naturally left their mark on me, as on all my compatriots. If one fails to appreciate this, one will not be able to understand what happened later. There is, however, an important difference between what happened before 1933 and what came afterward. We watched the earlier events unfold. They occupied and excited us, sometimes they even killed one or another of us or ruined him; but they did not confront us with ultimate decisions of conscience. Our innermost being remained untouched. We gained experience, acquired convictions, but remained basically the same people. However, no one who has, willingly or reluctantly, been caught up in the machine of the Third Reich can honestly say that of himself.
Clearly, historical events have varying degrees of intensity. Some may almost fail to impinge on true reality, that is, on the central, most personal part of a person's life. Others can wreak such havoc there that nothing is left standing. The Usual way in which history is written fails to reveal this. "1890: Wilhelm II dismisses Bismarck." Certainly a key event in German history, but scarcely an event at all in the biography of any German outside its small circle of protagonists. Life went on as before. No family was torn apart, no friendship broke up, no one fled their country. Not even a rendezvous was missed or an opera performance canceled. Those in love, whether happily or not, remained so; the poor remained poor, and the rich rich. Now compare that with "1933: Hindenburg sends for Hitler." An earthquake shatters 66 million lives.
Official, academic history has, as I said, nothing to tell us about the differences in intensity of historical occurrences. To learn about that, you must read biographies, not those of statesmen but the all-too-rare ones of unknown individuals. There you will see that one historical event passes over the private (real) lives of people like a cloud over a lake. Nothing stirs, there is only a fleeting shadow. Another event whips up the lake as in a thunderstorm. For a while it is scarcely recognizable. A third may, perhaps, drain the lake completely.
I believe history is misunderstood if this aspect is forgotten (and it usually is forgotten). So before I reach my proper theme, let me tell you my version of twenty years of German historythe history of Germany as a part of my private story. It will not take long, and it will make what follows easier to understand. Besides, it may help us get to know each other a little better.
My conscious life started with the outbreak of the Great War. It found me, like most Europeans, on my summer vacation. Indeed, the worst thing the war did to me was to spoil that vacation. With what merciful suddenness the last war began, compared with the slow, tortured approach of the one that is now imminent! On August 1, 1914, we had just decided not to take the matter very seriously, and to continue our vacation. We were on a farm estate in eastern Pomerania, lost to the world, in the midst of woods that I, as a small boy, knew and loved like nothing else in the world. The return from those woods to town, which usually took place in the middle of August, was the saddest and most unbearable event of the year for me; comparable, perhaps, only to the dismantling and burning of the Christmas tree after the New Year.
On August I that return was still two weeks away. A few days earlier, some disquieting things had happened. The newspaper contained something never seen before: headlines. My father read it longer than usual, looked very worried, and cursed the Austrians when he put it down. On one occasion the head-
Excerpted from Defying Hitler by Sebastian Haffner. Copyright © 2000 by Sarah Haffner and Oliver Pretzel. Excerpted by permission. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
Haffner's first person account of everyday life in the midst of the most murderous regime in history does not contradict the more academic and inevitably less interesting histories of the Third Reich. 'Defying Hitler' is clearly an accurate, albeit an incomplete, memoir. What is truly original and instructive about Haffner's account is that it treats the subject of Weimar culture with an objectivity that is rare among liberal-minded commentators. Supposedly, the period between the end of World War I and the election of Hitler in 1933 was a celebration of freedom and an apotheosis of humanistic values: viz, the first democratic constitution in German history. The more complex reality, a reality that Haffner describes with such breezy clarity, was that the economic ruination of that period, most notably the out of control inflation and devaluation of the currency, set up a series of social divisions that could only spur resentment, hatred and the political extremism that came soon after. What I found most alarming was that the youth-glorification that made the young and agile culturally and economically supreme during Weimar also rewarded tricksters, con men, and frauds of every stripe. Indeed, the cruelty and joylessness of the period has been captured by many of Weimar's most famous artists. But Haffner's masterful style, his ability to witness and at the same time to participate in the events of his time without self-rigtheousness is the hallmark of a great memoir. I saw a connection between the youthful revelry of the 20's and the Hitler Youth, between the lampooning of morals and traditional values and the road to mass murder. Clearly, Haffner contributed much to our collective understanding and helped to correct the fundamental fallacy of treating any period in history as a constellation of ideas removed from what actually happened.
A remarkable account of a young man born in Munich, Germany in 1907, experiencing intimately the social/political climate in Germany 1914 to 1933. He escaped the country ultimately to settle in Britain where he served in Parliament.
Haffner's history of the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany before World War 2 is very eloquently written and translated, and seems especially pertinent today. This book speaks volumes more than any history textbook's chapter regarding early twentieth century Germany. It is truly fascinating and enlightening seeing history told from a first person perspective.
The book was very insightful, it provides a look into how the Nazi policies affected people's personal lives.
"Official, academic history has nothing to tell us about the differences in intensity of historical occurrences," writes Sebastian Heffner in this fascinating memoir of Germany in the years 1914-1933. "To learn about that, you must read biographies of unknown individuals." For a very personal account of how the rise of Hitler affected one (non-Jewish) German, born in 1907, take his advice and read this book! He offers no apologetics, excuses, or self-pity. His repugnance for the Nazis is matched by his perceptiveness of how even Germans like him were being "made into" Nazis. It is quite compelling. I only wish he could have finished his story, which was interrupted by the outbreak of the war. The afterword by his son, who found the manuscript in a desk drawer after his father's death, "finishes" the story in a skeletal way, but the reader is still left yearning for more of Sebastian's insights.